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TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

THIRD CONJUGATION IRREGULARITIES







CONTENTS

This page is devoted to the irregularities of the third conjugation (-iyr verbs).


There are two subclasses of this conjugation: IIIa, in which no form of the verb has an extension, and IIIb, in which verbs have an -isc- extension between their stem and some endings. Subclass IIIb is larger and has no irregularities. Subclass IIIa consists mostly of irregular verbs.


Subclass IIIa

Here is a list of the common verbs in this subclass:

audiyr to hear lêviyr to betray serviyr to serve (something)
avriyr to open mentiyr to lie (say an untruth) sûfriyr to suffer
covriyr to cover mêtiyr to measure sûviyr to go up
dormiyr to sleep moriyr to die tûssiyr to cough
êixiyr to go out ofriyr to offer vêniyr to come
escanciyr to pour partiyr to leave vestiyr to dress
esparniyr to spare pêtiyr to ask for vinciyr to bind
farciyr to stuff ringiyr to snarl xentiyr to feel
fêriyr to injure saliyr to go out xerviyr to serve (someone)

Prefixed verbs formed from the above are conjugated analogously, e.g. compartiyr (to share), convêniyr (to suit), repêtiyr (to repeat), etc.


Present Indicative

Practically all verbs in this subclass present some irregularity in the present indicative. The only other verbs completely following the pattern of mentiyr are: partiyr, sûviyr and xentiyr.

  • A supporting vowel is inserted in the 2nd person singular in the same situations as in the 2nd conjugation. The only verbs not needing it, in addition to the three completely regular ones listed above, are: audiyr (auds), fêriyr (fers), mêtiyr (meits), moriyr (mors), pêtiyr (pets), saliyr (sals) and vêniyr (vens). All other verbs in this subclass need the supporting vowel: covriyr (couvres), farciyr (farces), etc.
     
  • Overall, three verbs follow the pattern of simple vocalic alternation - the root vowel is different when stressed and when unstressed. Example: covriyr (to cover) - couvro, couvres, couvre, covriym, covriys, couvren.
    • The others in this set are: mêtiyr (to measure): meito / mêtiym; pêtiyr (to ask for): peto / pêtiym.

     
  • One verb follows the pattern where only the root vowel of the 1st person singular is different from that in the infinitive and the other persons of this tense: moriyr (to die) - môro, mors, more, moriym, moriys, moren. [Note that this pattern involves three vowels when looked at from the phonemic point of view: /'mɔru, 'mors, 'morə, mu'røĭm, mu'røĭs, 'morən/]
     
  • Two verbs combine these two spelling patterns, effectively making for three alternating vowels: lêviyr (to betray) - lêivo, leivs, leive, lêviym, lêviys, leiven; fêriyr (to injure): fêiro, fers, fere, fêriym, fêriys, feren.
     
  • Seven verbs have no vocalic alternation, but change the root-final consonant in the 1st person singular.
    • In three of these verbs the consonant change is phonemic as well as orthographic: audiyr (to hear) - audzo; esparniyr (to spare) - esparnho; saliyr (to go out) - salho.
    • In the other four such verbs, the change is orthographic only, due to the different ways of spelling palatal consonants before back and front vowels: escanciyr (to pour) - escanço; farciyr (to stuff) - farço; ringiyr (to snarl) - ringio; vinciyr (to bind) - vinço.
  • One very common irregular verb has both vocalic and consonantal alternation: vêniyr (to come) - venho, vens, vene, vêniym, vêniys, venen.

Imperfect Indicative

The forms of this tense are generally regularly formed from the infinitive stem: moriyr - morîa, vinciyr - vincîa, etc. The following exceptions should be noted, however:

  • The five verbs with -ê- in the stem vowel lose the circumflex in this tense. Example: vêniyr (to come) - venîa, venîas, venîa, veniam, veniais, venîan.
    • The other four verbs are: fêriyr (to injure) - ferîa; lêviyr (to betray) - levîa; mêtiyr (to measure) - metîa; pêtiyr (to ask for) - petîa. The verb êixiyr (to go out) is not affected, as -êi- is considered to be a diphthong: êixîa.
  • The one verb with stem final -g, ringiyr (to snarl), needs a trema in the 1st and 2nd person plural to make sure that the -i- is pronounced. The full imperfect paradigm is: ringîa, ringîas, ringîa, ringïam, ringïais, ringîan.

Preterite Indicative

The forms of this tense are also quite regular, based on the infinitive stem: moriyr - moriy, vinciyr - vinciy, etc. Exceptions:

  • The verb vêniyr (to come) is highly irregular in this tense: veini, venisti / venís, veine, venim, venistes / vêniys, vêniyron.
  • The four other verbs with -ê- in the stem lose the circumflex in this tense as well, but only when the next syllable does not contain an -iy-. The full paradigm for pêtiyr (to ask for) is: pêtiy, petisti / petís, petí, petim, petistes / pêtiys, pêtiyron.
    • Similarly: fêriyr - fêriy but ferí; mêtiyr - mêtiy but metí; etc.

Pluperfect Indicative

This tense is generally regular. It is formed by adding the endings of the tense directly on to the infinitive, with the additional change of the -iy- to -i- in the 1st and 2nd person plural. Sample pattern:

  • moriyr (to die): moriyra, moriyras, moriyra, moriram, morirais, moriyran.

One additional note: the 5 verbs with -ê- in the root lose the circumflex accent in the 1st and 2nd person plural, e.g.:

  • vêniyr (to come): vêniyra, vêniyras, vêniyra, veniram, venirais, vêniyran.
    • Similarly: pêtiyr - pêtiyra but petiram; fêriyr - fêriyra but feriram; etc.

Future Indicative and Conditional

These are normally regular, with the endings added on to the infinitive in which the -iy- has changed to -i-. Example, for the verb moriyr (to die):

  • Future: moriroy, morirás, morirá, morireim, morirêis, morirán.
  • Conditional: morirîa, morirîas, morirîa, moririam, moririais, morirîan.

The 5 verbs with -ê- in the stem lose the circumflex: veniroy, petiroy, feriroy, etc.


Present Subjunctive

Just as for 2nd conjugation verbs, the pres. subj. of 3rd conjugation verbs is normally based on the 1st person sing. of the pres. ind. Example:

  • vêniyr (to come) [venho]: venha, venhas, venha, venham, venhais, venhan.
    • Similarly: audiyr - audza; dormiyr - dorma; lêviyr - lêiva; moriyr - môra; etc.

Two verbs have vocalic alternation in this tense:

  • covriyr (to cover): couvra, couvras, couvra, covram, covrais, couvran.
  • mêtiyr (to measure): meita, meitas, meita, metam, metais, meitan.

Imperfect Subjunctive

This tense is normally regular, with the endings added on to the infinitive in which the -iy- has changed to -i-, and from which the -r has been dropped. Example, for the verb moriyr (to die):

  • morisse, morisses, morisse, morisseim, morissêis, morissen.

The 5 verbs with -ê- in the stem lose the circumflex: venisse, petisse, ferisse, etc.


Imperative

The 2nd person singular of the imperative is identical to the 3rd person singular of the pres. ind., with the -e ending changed to -i:

  • partiyr > parti, audiyr > audi, saliyr > sali, covriyr > couvri, vinciyr > vinci, vêniyr > veni; etc.

The 1st person plural of the imperative is identical to the same person in the pres. subj.:

  • partiyr > partam, audiyr > audzam, saliyr > salham, covriyr > covram, vinciyr > vinçam, vêniyr > venham; etc.

The 2nd person plural of the imperative is identical to the infinitive, with the final consonant -r replaced by -t:

  • partiyr > partiyt, audiyr > audiyt, saliyr > saliyt, covriyr > covriyt, vinciyr > vinciyt, vêniyr > vêniyt; etc.

Participles and the Gerund

The Present Participle and the Gerund are normally regular, with the ending -ent and -endo, respectively, added to the normal stem:

  • partiyr > partent, audiyr > audent, saliyr > salent, covriyr > covrent, vinciyr > vincent; partiyr > partendo, audiyr > audendo, saliyr > salendo, covriyr > covrendo, vinciyr > vincendo.

The 5 verbs with -ê- in the stem lose the circumflex: venent, petent, ferent, etc.; venendo, petendo, ferendo, etc.

The past participle is identical to the infinitive, with the final consonant -r replaced by -t:

  • partiyr > partiyt, audiyr > audiyt, saliyr > saliyt, vêniyr > vêniyt; etc.

Five verbs have irregular past participles:

  • avriyr (to open): apert; covriyr (to cover): copert; ofriyr (to offer): offert; sûfriyr (to suffer): sûffert; vinciyr (to bind): vint.

Subclass IIIb

This subclass has many more members than Subclass IIIa. They are all completely regular.

A list of the most common verbs in this subclass follows (with the 1st person sing. of the pres. ind. given):

  • abhorriyr: abhorrisco (to abhor)
  • aboliyr: abolisco (to abolish)
  • agiyr: agisco (to act)
  • amortiyr: amortisco (to reduce, amortize)
  • aplaudiyr: aplaudisco (to applaud)
  • balbutiyr: balbutisco (to stutter, stammer)
  • baniyr: banisco (to summon)
  • bastiyr: bastisco (to build)
  • brandiyr: brandisco (to wield)
  • bûlliyr: bûllisco (to boil)
  • carpiyr: carpisco (to pluck, pick)
  • causiyr: causisco (to choose)
  • compatiyr: compatisco (to pity)
  • compliyr: complisco (to complete)
  • condiyr: condisco (to season)
  • cûpiyr: cûpisco (to wish)
  • divertiyr: divertisco (to amuse)
  • embelliyr: embellisco (to beautify)
  • empêdiyr: empêdisco (to trip)
  • englûttiyr: englûttisco (to swallow)
  • estavliyr: estavlisco (to establish)
  • esvaniyr-se: m’esvanisco (to faint)
  • exhauriyr: exhaurisco (to exhaust)
  • expêdiyr: expêdisco (to forward)
  • finiyr: finisco (to finish)
  • floriyr: florisco (to blossom)
  • forniyr: fornisco (to furnish, supply)
  • frêmiyr: frêmisco (to thrill)
  • fûrbiyr: fûrbisco (to polish)
  • garriyr: garrisco (to gossip)
  • gaudiyr: gaudisco (to enjoy)
  • grandiyr: grandisco (to enlarge)
  • grûndiyr: grûndisco (to scold)
  • guarantiyr: guarantisco (to guarantee)
  • guariyr: guarisco (to heal, ward off)
  • guarniyr: guarnisco (to warn)
  • hauniyr: haunisco (to shame)
  • impêdiyr: impêdisco (to hinder, prevent)
  • impliyr: implisco (to fill)
  • insêriyr: insêrisco (to plug)
  • jocaliyr: jocalisco (to gamble)
  • laviyr: lavisco (to slide)
  • obêdiyr: obêdisco (to obey)
  • palliyr: pallisco (to fade, wilt)
  • pêriyr: pêrisco (to perish)
  • poliyr: polisco (to polish)
  • potiyr-si: mi potisco (to take possession of)
  • prudiyr: prudisce (to itch) [only used in the 3rd person]
  • puniyr: punisco (to punish)
  • putiyr: putisco (to stink)
  • pûtriyr: pûtrisco (to rot)
  • raustiyr: raustisco (to roast)
  • scirmiyr: scirmisco (to screen)
  • tardiyr: tardisco (to be late)
  • uniyr: unisco (to unite)
  • vomiyr: vomisco (to vomit)
  • xevliyr: xevlisco (to bury)

Prefixed verbs formed from the above also belong here, e.g.:

  • accompliyr (to accomplish),  compêriyr (to find out), reüniyr-se (to meet, gather), etc.

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