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TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

VERBS







CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

Tundrian verbs present a complexity far beyond that seen in the nouns and adjectives of the language. For the simple finite forms, there are distinctions made for two numbers (singular and plural), three persons (1st, 2nd and 3rd), five tenses (present, imperfect, preterite, pluperfect and future) and four moods (indicative, subjunctive, conditional and imperative). In addition there are the non-finite forms of the infinitive and the past and present participle. Finally, there are compound tenses combining auxiliary verbs and  the past participle.

The basic form of a verb is called its root - this is what the endings are added to. Normally, different finite forms of verbs are distinguished by the use of different endings. However, in many irregular verbs the root may also change in specific forms. In two common irregular verbs (esseir 'to be' and eular 'to go') there are examples of suppletion: different roots are used for different forms.


CONJUGATION PATTERNS


REGULAR CONJUGATION CLASSES

There are three conjugations, defined by whether the infinitive ends in -ar (Class I), -eir (Class II) or -iyr (Class III). Class III is further subdivided into two subclasses (IIIa and IIIb), depending on whether the verbs have an extension in -isc- in some forms or not.

All simple forms of sample verbs illustrating the four conjugation classes are given below. For all finite forms within a paradigm, the order is as follows: 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular, 1st, 2nd and 3rd person plural. All endings are in red.

Conjugation I II IIIa IIIb
Infinitive cantar cadeir mentiyr finiyr
Meaning to sing to fall to lie to finish
Present Indicative canto
cantas
canta
cantam
cantais
cantan
cado
cads
cade
cadeim
cadêis
caden
mento
ments
mente
mentiym
mentiys
menten
finisco
finisces
finisce
finiym
finiys
finiscen
Imperfect Indicative cantava
cantavas
cantava
cantavam
cantavais
cantavan
cadîa
cadîas
cadîa
cadiam
cadiais
cadîan
mentîa
mentîas
mentîa
mentiam
mentiais
mentîan
finiscîa
finiscîas
finiscîa
finisciam
finisciais
finiscîan
Preterite Indicative cantái
cantasti/-ás
cantó
cantaum
cantastes/-ois
cantaron
cadúi
cadusti/-ús
cadú
cadum
cadustes/-uis
caduron
mentiy
mentisti/-ís
mentí
mentim
mentistes/-iys
mentiyron
finiy
finisti/-ís
finí
finim
finistes/-iys
finiyron
Pluperfect Indicative cantara
cantaras
cantara
cantaram
cantarais
cantaran
cadura
caduras
cadura
caduram
cadurais
caduran
mentiyra
mentiyras
mentiyra
mentiram
mentirais
mentiyran
finiyra
finiyras
finiyra
finiram
finirais
finiyran
Future Indicative cantaroy
cantarás
cantará
cantareim
cantarêis
cantarán
cadroy
cadrás
cad
cadreim
cadrêis
cadrán
mentiroy
mentirás
mentirá
mentireim
mentirêis
mentirán
finiroy
finirás
finirá
finireim
finirêis
finirán
Present Subjunctive cante
cants
cante
canteim
cantêis
canten
cada
cadas
cada
cadam
cadais
cadan
menta
mentas
menta
mentam
mentais
mentan
finisca
finiscas
finisca
finiscam
finiscais
finiscan
Imperfect Subjunctive cantasse
cantasses
cantasse
cantasseim
cantassêis
cantassen
cadusse
cadusses
cadusse
cadusseim
cadussêis
cadussen
mentisse
mentisses
mentisse
mentisseim
mentissêis
mentissen
finisse
finisses
finisse
finisseim
finissêis
finissen
Conditional cantarîa
cantarîas
cantarîa
cantariam
cantariais
cantarîan
cadrîa
cadrîas
cadrîa
cadriam
cadriais
cadrîan
mentirîa
mentirîas
mentirîa
mentiriam
mentiriais
mentirîan
finirîa
finirîas
finirîa
finiriam
finiriais
finirîan
Imperative -
canta
-
canteim
cantat
-
-
cade
-
cadam
cadeit
-
-
menti
-
mentam
mentiyt
-
-
finisce
-
finiscam
finiyt
-
Present Participle cantant cadent mentent finiscent
Gerund cantando cadendo mentendo finiscendo
Past Participle cantat, -a cadut, -a mentiyt, -a finiyt, -a

Notes:

  • For the 2nd person sing. and plural of the Preterite Indicative, two forms are given for all verbs. The first is more common in literature and very formal style, while the second is more common in everyday usage.
  • The Pluperfect Indicative also has subjunctive uses, explained elsewhere. In fact, in everyday usage it is only these subjunctive uses that are common - otherwise the pluperfect is replaced by the Past Perfect.
  • The Imperative is only used in the 2nd person singular and the 1st and 2nd person plural. The 1st person plural forms are identical to the corresponding Present Subjunctive forms.

MAIN AUXILIARY VERBS

Three auxiliary verbs are so important, and show so many irregularities, that their full conjugation is given below. Note that esseir and eular exhibit suppletion (they involve several different roots).

Infinitive esseir haveir eular
Meaning to be to have to go
Present Indicative soy
seis
és
m
sêis
son
hoy
has
ha
haveim
havêis
han
voy
vas
va
eulam
eulais
van
Imperfect Indicative yera
yeras
yera
êram
êrais
yeran
havîa
havîas
havîa
haviam
haviais
havîan
eulava
eulavas
eulava
eulavam
eulavais
eulavan
Preterite Indicative fui
fusti/fus
fu
fum
fustes/fuis
furon
havúi
havusti/havús
havú
havum
havustes/havuis
havuron
eulái
eulasti/-ás
euló
eulaum
eulastes/-ois
eularon
vadúi
vadusti/-ús
vadú
vadum
vadustes/-uis
vaduron
Pluperfect Indicative fura
furas
fura
furam
furais
furan
havura
havuras
havura
havuram
havurais
havuran
eulara
eularas
eulara
eularam
eularais
eularan
vadura
vaduras
vadura
vaduram
vadurais
vaduran
Future Indicative seroy
serás
será
sereim
serêis
serán
havroy
havrás
hav
havreim
havrêis
havrán
iroy
irás
i
ireim
irêis
irán
Present Subjunctive sîa
sîas
sîa
siam
siais
sîan
haya
hayas
haya
hayam
hayais
hayan
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayam
vayais
vayan
Imperfect Subjunctive fusse
fusses
fusse
fusseim
fussêis
fussen
havusse
havusses
havusse
havusseim
havussêis
havussen
eulasse
eulasses
eulasse
eulasseim
eulassêis
eulassen
vadusse
vadusses
vadusse
vadusseim
vadussêis
vadussen
Conditional serîa
serîas
serîa
seriam
seriais
serîan
havrîa
havrîas
havrîa
havriam
havriais
havrîan
irîa
irîas
irîa
iriam
iriais
irîan
Imperative -
sei
-
siam
seit
-
-
ha
-
hayam
haveit
-
-
va
-
vayam
eulat
-
Present Participle essent havent eulant
Gerund essendo havendo eulando
Past Participle fut, -a havut, -a eulat, -a

Where two parallel sets are given for eular, the two are used with roughly equal frequency, and both are considered correct in the standard language.


COMPOUND TENSES

For every form of the Tundrian verb (with the exception of the Imperative and the Past Participle), there is a corresponding compound form known as the perfect. The perfect forms are always made by the appropriate form of one of the auxiliary verbs esseir or haveir, followed by the past participle of the verb in question: hoy cantat (I have sung), êram vêniyti (we had come), havent passat (having passed).

The basic rules as to whether esseir or haveir should be used are as follows:

  • esseir is used with:
     

    • Most verbs of motion: arripar (arrive), ascendeir (go up), cadeir (fall), descendeir (descend, go down), eular (go), intrar (enter), partiyr (leave, depart), procedeir (proceed), retornar (return), revêniyr (come back), saliyr (go out), vêniyr (come). Examples: soy arripat (I have arrived), son caduti (they have fallen), yera saliyta (she had gone out).
       

      • Verbs of motion that emphasize the type of motion are conjugated with haveir: antar (walk), cûrreir (run), natar (swim), volar (fly): hoy cûrs, ha natat etc.
         

    • Verbs denoting a state or change of state: avêniyr (happen), cresceir (grow), dêcedeir (decede, die), devêniyr (become), discresceir (decrease), disparesceir (disappear), estar (stand, be standing), jaceir (lie down), maneir/remaneir (remain), moriyr (die), nasceir (be born), restar (stay), sûrgeir (surge), velhar (grow old), xedeir (sit). Examples: son cresçuti (they have grown), essent estat (having been standing), yeran morti (they had died), soy nat (I was born).
       

    • Verbs denoting appearance: apparesceir (appear), paresceir (seem), ximlar (seem). Examples: és apparesçuta (she has appeared), son ximlati (they have seemed).
       

    • Impersonal verbs related to a mental state: bastar (suffice), displaceir (displease), doleir (ache, cause pain), gûstar (please, like), placeir (please). Examples: és bastat (it has sufficed), mi és gûstat (I have liked it).
       

    • The verbs êixiyr (succeed) and intervêniyr (intervene): son êixiyti (they have succeeded), jo yera intervêniyt (I had intervened).
       

    • Pronominal verbs, of which there are a great many. Some commonly used ones are: abdicar-se (abdicate), absteneir-se (abstain), accordar-se (agree), batteir-se (fight), casar-se (marry), conflar-se (swell), crûllar-se (crash), deviar-se (lose one's way), dormiyr-se (fall aslep), empignar-se (commit oneself), errar-se (make a mistake), estar-se (stand up), eular-se (leave, go away), excusar-se (apologize), fastiar-se (get tired), fûndeir-se (melt), habituar-se (get used to), irritar-se (get angry), melhorar-se (get better, improve), mitteir-se (begin, get started), nhecar-se (drown), ostinar-se (be obstinate), palliyr-se (wither), perdeir-se (get lost), rapeir-se (hurry), rixar-se (riot), usar-se (wear out), versar-se (pour [intr.]), xamar-se (swarm), xiccar-se (dry [intr.]). Examples: se son accordati (they have agreed), se será conflat (it will have swollen), m'essent habituat (having got accustomed), s'és nhecata (she has drowned).
       

      • Pronominal verbs should not be confused with reflexive verbs, which may look identical to them in most situations, and which are conjugated with haveir, such as: arrestar-se (stop [intr.]), candzar-se (change oneself), interessar-se (interest oneself in), lavar-se (wash oneself), peynar-se (comb oneself), rasar-se (shave [intr.]), vestiyr-se (dress oneself), etc. Examples of perfect use: s'ha lavat (he has washed himself), vos havêis rasat(s)? (have you shaved?).
         

  • Some verbs may be conjugated either with esseir or haveir. This happens in two situations:
     

    • For some verbs, the choice depends entirely on whether the verb is used intransitively (conjugated with esseir) or transitively (conjugated with haveir). Such verbs are:
       

      • abordar (board): soy abordat soul (I have gone aboard alone); el capitán ha abordat lâ nâu soul (the captain has boarded the ship alone).

      • candzar (change): és candzat mûlt (he has changed much [about himself]); ha candzat mûlt (he has changed much [around himself]).

      • expirar (expire/breathe out): son expirati (they have expired, died); el dracoun ha expirat es ênormes flammas (the dragon has expired enormous flames).

      • fuîr (flee): son fuiti dâ lo payeiz (they have fled from the country); han fuit lour passat (they have fled their past).

      • passar (pass): és passata (she has passed [e.g. an exam]); ha passat lo exame (she has passed the exam).

      • saltar (jump; assail): son saltati en lo aer (they have jumped in the air); han saltat lâ vêitura postal (they have assailed the postal coach).

      • sonar (ring): el têlephôn és sonat (the phone has rung); il m'ha sonat hieri (he phoned me yesterday).

      • valeir (be worth): és valut (it has been worth it); ha valut dous meizes de mîa viyta, nón mais (it has been worth two months of my life, nothing more).

      • volveir (come back; wrap up): son volvuti (they have come back); han volvut los rêgals (they have wrapped the presents).
         

    • For some verbs used pronominally, usage fluctuates: they may be considered as purely pronominal (and therefore conjugate with esseir) or as reflexive (and therefore conjugate with haveir). Examples:
       

      • avantzar-se (advance): se son avantzati or s'han avantzats (they have advanced)

      • banhar-se (bathe): s'és banhata or s'ha banhata (she has bathed)

      • jûngeir-se (join): s'és jûnt a lâ associatzoun or s'ha jûnt a lâ associatzoun (he has joined the association)

      • lhevar-se (rise): el soul s'és lhevat or el soul s'ha lhevat (the sun has risen)

      • occûpar-se (busy oneself with): me soy occûpat con... or m'hoy occûpat a... [N.B. the different preposition used]

      • tornar-se (turn around): s'és tornata or s'ha tornata (she has turned around)

      • voltar-se (overturn): la nâu s'és voltata or la nâu s'ha voltata (the ship has overturned).
         

  • All other verbs (the great majority) are conjugated with haveir: hoy cantat (I have sung), ha dormiyt (he has slept), havîa fut (I/he/she/it had been).

     

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