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TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

TUNDRIAN PRONUNCIATION RULES







The rules on this page show the relationship between spelling and pronunciation in Tundrian. For pronunciation, we shall use the phonetic symbols explained on the Phonetics and phonology page.

Pronunciation rules are given in alphabetic order, by simple letter and digraph.

At the bottom of the page, there are examples of Tundrian homophones with contrasting spellings.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • a
    • In open syllables: /a/. Ex: casa /'kaza/ (house).
    • In closed syllables: /ɑ/. Ex: camp /'kɑmp/ (field).
    • In the function words las and celas, <a> is pronounced /ɑ/ when the immediately following word begins with a voiceless consonant, and /a/ otherwise. Ex: las compro /lɑs 'kɔmpru/ (I buy them [fem.]) BUT las vidzo /laz 'vidzu/ (I see them); vidzo celas casas /'vidzu tʃəlɑs 'kazas/ (I see these houses) BUT hoy comprat celas uvas /oĭ kɔm'prat tʃəlaz 'yvas/ (I have bought these grapes).
    • Exceptionally, we find /a/ in closed unstressed syllables in adverbs like naturalment /natyral'mɛnt/ (naturally), similarment /similar'mɛnt/ 'similarly'.
    • Exceptionally, <a> is silent is aorta /'ɔrta/ (aorta).
    • In some English loanwords we find /eĭ/: Basic /'bzik/, baby /'bbi/.
  • á
    • Always /a/. Ex: será /sə'ra/ (he/she/it will be); ánat /'anat/ (duck).
  • â
    • Always /ɑ/. Ex: plâstic /'plɑstik/ (plastic); ân /'ɑn/ (year).
  • aa
    • Used only in proper names: /a/. Ex: Caasti /'kasti/; Isaac /i'zak/.
  • ae
    • Before <r>: /ɛ/. Ex: aeroport /ɛru'pɔrt/ (airport); laerma /'lɛrma/ (tear [n.]).
    • Separate syllabic vowels otherwise. Ex: traent /tra'ɛnt/ (pulling); Israel /izra'el/ (Israel).
  • ai, ái, ay
    • Normally /aĭ/. Ex: lait /'lt/ (milk); cantái /kɑn't/ (I sang); payna /'pna/ (page); papegay /papə'g/ (parrot).
    • Before the phonemes /tʃ/ and /ʃ/: /a/. Ex: caixa /'kaʃa/ (box).
    • Exceptionally we find this spelling in payeiz /pa'is/ (country).
    • In some English loanwords we find /eĭ/: Mayday /'md/, back-pay /'bɑk 'p/.
  • au, áu
    • Normally /ɔ/. Ex: aur /'ɔr/ (gold); laudar /lɔ'dar/ (to praise); cáustic /'kɔstik/.
    • /o/ in the word pauvro /'povru/ (poor) and in the preterite 1st person pl. ending -aum. Ex: cantaum /kɑn'tom/ (we sang).
  • âu
    • Always /aŭ/. Ex: clâu /'kl/ (key).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • b, bb
    • Normally /b/. Ex: batteir /bɑ'tir/ (to beat); sâbbat /'sɑbat/ (Saturday).
    • /p/, before <s>, <t>. Ex: absolut /ɑpsu'lyt/ (absolute); obturar /ɔpty'rar/ (to fill, to shut).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • c, cc
    • /k/, before the back vowels <a>, <o> or <u>, also before consonants and in final position. Ex: casa /'kaza/ (house); accordar /ɑkɔr'dar/ (to grant); secur /sə'kyr/ (safe); octoubre /ɔk'tubrə/ (October); lac /'lak/ (lake).
    • /tʃ/ before the front vowels <e>, <i> or <y>. Ex: cent /'ɛnt/ (hundred); occideir /ɔi'dir/ (to kill); cypress /ip'rɛs/ (cypress).
  • ç, cç
    • Always /tʃ/ (used only before the back vowels <a>, <o> or <u>, or in final position). Ex: fâça /'fɑa/ (face); calçoun /kɑl'un/ (shoe); çutat /y'tat/ (city); baar /bɑ'ar/ (to stagger); vouç /'vu/ (voice).
  • ch, cch
    • Always /k/ in common words. Ex: chemia /'kemja/ (chemistry); choral /ku'ral/ (choir); sacchariyna /sɑka'røĭna/ (saccharine).
    • /ʃ/ in some proper names taken from French and Nordisc. Ex: Chûgna /'ʃuɲa/; Chartres /'ʃɑrtrə/.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • d, dd
    • Usually /d/. Ex: depois /də'poĭs/ (afterwards); additzoun /ɑdi'tsun/ (addition).
    • Silent between a consonant and the adverbial ending -ment. Ex: grandment /grɑm'mɛnt/ (largely); virdment /vir'mɛnt/ (in a green fashion).
  • dj
    • Always /dʒ/. Ex: adjectiyv /aɛk'tøĭf/ (adjective); trudjar /try'ar/ (to push).
  • ds
    • Always /ts/ (occurs only in final position, when the ending <s> is added on to word-final <d>). Ex: cads /'kats/ (you fall); cruds /'kryts/ (crude [masc.acc.pl.]).
  • dz
    • Always /dz/. Ex: dzent /'dzɛnt/ (tooth); medz /'medz/ (middle).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • e
    • In open stressed syllables: /e/. Ex: ped /'ped/ (foot); velha /'veʎa/ (old [f.]).
    • In open unstressed syllables, except in final position after a <g>, or before another vowel: /ə/. Ex: tzeneir /tsə'nir/ (to hold); case /'kazə/ (houses); de /də/ (of).
    • In closed syllables (stressed or unstressed): /ɛ/. Ex: perdo /'pɛrdu/ (I lose); perdeim /pɛr'dim/ (we lose). Also, before or after another vowel or semi-vowel if unstressed (except finally), e.g.: theatro /tɛ'ɑtru/ (theatre); le isle /lɛ'izlə/ (the islands); pietat /p'tat/ (piousness). In final position, /ə/ is retained: pharmacíe /fɑrma'tʃiə/.
    • Silent in word-final postion after <g>. Ex: college /kɔ'ledʒ/ (college); bridge /'bridʒ/ (bridge [the game]).
  • é
    • Practically always /e/. Ex: crédit /'kredit/ (credit); café /ka'fe/ (coffee).
    • Exceptionally, the words bén (well [adv.]) and és (is) are pronounced /bɛn/ and /ɛs/, respectively, when they are unstressed in the sentence.
  • ê
    • Always /ɛ/. Ex: tirêt /ti'rɛt/ (drawer); êlephant /ɛlə'fɑnt/ (elephant); ê /ɛ/ (and).
  • ë
    • In word-final position it is pronounced /ə/. Ex: imagë /i'madʒə/ (picture); boë /'boə/ (boa constrictors).
    • In the few cases where it is used within a word, it is pronounced /ɛ/. Ex: joëntut /ʒuɛn'tyt/ (youth).
  • ea
    • In a few words of English origin: /i/ or /eĭ/. Ex: team /'tim/; steak /'stk/.
    • Otherwise, the vowels belong to different syllables, as in: theatro /tɛ'ɑtru/ (theatre); crear /krɛ'ar/ (to create); realitat /rɛali'tat/ (reality).
  • ee
    • This rare combination is pronounced /e/ when stressed and /ɛ/ when unstressed. Ex: leer /'ler/ (to read [a legal term]); leerá /lɛ'ra/ (he will read).
    • In words of English origin, the combination is pronounced /i/, as in: meeting /'miting/; yankee /'jɑnki/.
    • This rare combination is pronounced /eə/. Ex: europ/øru'p/ (Europeans [fem.pl]).
  • ei, éi
    • This frequent combination is always pronounced /i/. Ex: seira /'sira/ (evening); veinde /'vində/ (he sells); féicat /'fikat/ (liver); corteisament /kɔrtiza'mɛnt/ (courteously).
  • êi, ey
    • Except before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, both these combinations are pronounced /eĭ/. Ex: pêit /'pt/ (chest); rey /'r/ (king); peyne /'pnə/ (comb).
    • Before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, the pronunciation of <êi> is /e/ (<ey> does not occur in this position). Ex: pêix /'peʃ/ (fish); êixiyr /e'ʃøĭr/ (to go out).
  • eu, éu
    • Always /ø/. Ex: seut /søt/ (seven); eular /ø'lar/ (to go); séutim /'søtim/ (seventh).
  • êu
    • Always /eŭ/. Ex: dzêu /'dz/ (god); nêus /'ns/ (birthmarks [acc.pl.]); aerêu /ɛ'r/ (aerial).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • f, ff
    • Always /f/. Ex: fariyna /fa'røĭna/ (flour); effêit /ê'feĭt/ (effect).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • g,gg
    • /g/, before the back vowels <a>, <o> or <u>, also before consonants (except <s>) and in final position. Ex: nêgatiyv /nɛga'tøĭf/ (negative); agonizar /aguni'zar/ (to agonize); gûla /'gula/ (throat); aglomeratzoun /agluməra'tsun/ (agglomeration); fag /'fag/ (beech tree).
    • /k/ before <s> (occurs only in final position, with the ending <s> added on to word-final <g>). Ex: fags /'faks/ (beech-trees [acc.pl.]); geologs /dʒɛu'loks/ (geologists [acc.pl.]).
    • /dʒ/ before the front vowels <e>, <i> or <y>. Ex: gent /'ɛnt/ (people); legîa /lə'ia/ (I/he/she was reading); sûggereir /suə'rir/ (to suggest); gynecología /inəkulu'ia/ (gynecology).
    • Silent in intervocalic position after an <i> in a few geographical names in Tundria, in particular in Taigo /'taĭu/.
  • ge
    • Considered as a unit at the end of a word, it is pronounced /dʒ/. Ex: college /kɔ'le/ (college); garage /ga'ra/ (garage).
    • In all other cases, this combination corresponds to a consonant + vowel sequence. Ex: gestatzoun /dʒɛsta'tsun/ (gestation); geología /dʒɛulu'dʒia/ (geology).
  • gh
    • Used in a few proper nouns and in words of foreign (mostly Italian) origin, this combination is always pronounced /g/. Ex: ghetto /'gɛtu/; spaghetti /spa'gɛti/; Ghoyla /'gula/.
  • gi
    • Considered as a unit when immediately followed in the same word by a back vowel (<a>, <o> or <u>), this combination is pronounced /dʒ/. Ex: plagia /'plaa/ (beach); collegios /kɔ'leus/ (colleges [acc.pl.]); figiut /fi'yt/ (fixed [pp]); giûba /'uba/ (skirt).
    • In all other cases, this combination corresponds to a sequence of two separate phonemes. Ex: girar /dʒi'rar/ (to rotate); ênergie /ɛ'nɛrdʒjə/ (energies); magi /'madʒi/ (magicians).
  • gn
    • In non-initial position, this sequence is almost always pronounced /ɲ/. Ex: agnêil /a'ɲeĭl/ (lamb); signal /si'ɲal/ (signal); magnífic /ma'ɲific/ (magnificient).
    • In initial position, in all forms of the verb cognosceir (and its derivatives), and in some proper names, <gn> is pronounced /n/ (i.e. the <g> is silent). Ex: gnôstic /'nɔstik/ (gnostic); gnû /'nu/ (gnu); cognousco /ku'nusku/ (I know); cognoscentza /kunɔ'ʃɛntsa/ (knowledge); Cugna /'kyna/ (city in southern Tundria).
    • In some words of recent learned origin (mostly from Greek and Latin), non-initial <gn> is pronounced as the sequence /gn/. Ex: agnôstic /ag'nɔstik/ (agnostic); ignifug /igni'fyg/ (fireproof).
  • gu
    • Considered as a unit when immediately followed within the same word by a front vowel (<e>, <i> or <y>), this combination is pronounced /g/. Ex: guerra /'gɛra/ (war); guiyda /'gøĭda/ (guide).
    • In all other cases, this combination corresponds to a sequence of two separate phonemes. Ex: lingua /'lingwa/ (tongue, language); longura /lɔn'gyra/ (length).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • h
    • This letter is always silent. Ex: haveir /a'vir/ (to have); hyena /'jena/ (hyena); alcohol /ɑlku'ol/ (alcohol); Niniveh /nini've/.
    • After consonantal letters, <h> normally has no value. Note, however, that <lh>, <nh> and <ph> are  /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /f/, respectively, and <ch> is /k/ even in front of a front vowel. Ex: olh /'oʎ/ (eye); nhive /'ɲivə/ (snow); philosophía /filuzu'fia/; chemia /'kemja/ (chemistry).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • i
    • Generally speaking, this letter is pronounced /i/. Ex: fid /'fid/ (faith); pira /'pira/ (pear); muri /'myri/ (walls); mi /mi/ (to me).
    • Before vowels, the pronunciation of unstressed <i> varies between syllabic /i/ and non-syllabic /j/, depending on the phonetic context and the rhythm of speech. Ex: deviam /də'vjam/ ~ /dəviam/ (we had to); Francia /'frɑntʃja/ ~ /'frɑntʃia/ (France); convênient /kɔmvɛ'njɛnt/ ~ /kɔmvɛni'ɛnt/ (suitable).
    • When <i> is between a <g> and a following back vowel, it is silent. See here for more.
  • í, î
    • Both of these accented letters are used for stressed /i/ in certain situations. The exact rules are given here. Ex: xerví /ʃɛr'vi/ (he served); alfín /ɑl'fin/ (bishop [in chess]); havîan /a'vian/ (they had); mîa /'mia/ (my, mine [fem.sing.]).
  • ï
    • This letter is never used for a stressed vowel. Its most common value is syllabic /i/, used after a vowel (in the absence of the trema, a monophthong or diphthong would be pronounced). Ex: naïvitat /naivi'tat/ (naiveté); reïncarnar-se /reinkɑr'nasə/ (to be reincarnated); coïncidentza /kuintʃi'dɛntsa/ (coincidence); suïcidar-se /syitʃi'dasə/ (to commit suicide).
    • A second use of this letter is to show that <i> is to be pronounced /i/ or /j/ between <g> and a back vowel (rather than be silent, as explained here). Ex: ênergïa /ɛ'nɛrdʒja/ (energy); contagïoun /kɔnta'dʒjun/ (contagion).
  • ie
    • After <c> and <g>, when in an open syllable, this digraph is pronounced /e/. Ex: ciec /'tʃek/ (blind); giela /'dʒela/ (it freezes). In the rare cases where this situation occurs in an unstressed syllable, the pronunciation becomes /ɛ/. Ex: ciecament /tʃɛka'mɛnt/ (blindly).
    • In all other cases <ie> is considered to be a sequence of two phonemes. Ex: scientza /'ʃntsa/ (science) [closed syllable!]; pietat /p'tat/ (piousness); hierba /'rba/ (grass); convênient /kɔmvɛ'njɛnt/ ~ /kɔmvɛni'ɛnt/ (suitable).
  • îu
    • This combination is pronounced /iŭ/. Ex: rîu /'r/ (river); vîu /'v/ (alive).
  • iy, íy
    • This combination is almost always pronounced /øĭ/. Ex: viyta /'vøĭta/ (life); xerviy /ʃɛr'vøĭ/ (I served).
    • Exceptionally, the pronunciation of this digraph is /ø/ when followed by a palatal consonant (/tʃ/ or /ʃ/). Ex: amiyci /a'møtʃi/ (friends); diyxi /'døʃi/ (I said).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • j
    • This consonant is always pronounced /ʒ/. Ex: jôun /'ʒoŭn/ (young); bajar /ba'ʒar/ (to kiss).
  • k
    • Occurring only in recent loanwords, this letter is always pronounced /k/. Ex: kilogramma /kilu'grɑma/; kantismo /kɑn'tizmu/.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • l, ll
    • /l/ is the normal pronunciation. Ex: lait /'laĭt/ (milk); voleir /vu'lir/ (to want); xella /'ʃɛla/ (chair); mil /'mil/ (thousand).
    • When the combination <ll> is derived from the Latin prefix in- + a root beginning with <l>, it is pronounced doubled (/ll/). Ex: illógic /il'lodʒik/ (illogical); illuminar /illymi'nar/ (to light up, illuminate).
    • The letter <l> is silent between the glide /j/ and the phoneme /s/. Ex: cayls /'kaĭs/ (puppies [acc.pl.]); fiyls /'føĭs/ (threads [acc.pl.]).
  • lh
    • This digraph is normally pronounced /ʎ/. Ex: lhevar /ʎə'var/ (to lift); palha /'paʎa/ (straw); filh /'fiʎ/ (son).
    • Exceptionally, <lh> is pronounced /l/ in the Spanish proper name Alhambra /a'lɑmbra/ and the Greek loanword philharmónic /filɑr'monik/ (philharmonic) and its derivatives.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • m, mm
    • Normally pronounced /m/. Ex: man /'man/ (hand); amar /a'mar/ (to love); flamma /'flɑma/ (flame); tzemp /'tsɛmp/ (time); sûm /'sum/ (we are). The labiodental nasal seen before <ph> is also considered to be an allophone of the phoneme /m/. Ex: amphitheatru /ɑmfitɛ'ɑtru/ (amphitheatre); symphonía /simfu'nia/ (symphony).
    • When the combination <mm> is derived from the Latin prefix in- + a root beginning with <m>, it is pronounced doubled /mm/. Ex: immigrar /immi'grar/ (to immigrate); immóbil /im'mobil/ (immobile).
    • When <m> occurs before <l> or <r>, the result is a nasalization of the preceding vowel. Phonemically, this is represented by post-vocalic /n/. Ex: ximlar /ʃin'lar/ (to seem); camra /'kanra/ (room, chamber).
  • mn
    • This combination is pronounced /n/. Ex: mnêmónic /nɛ'monik/ (mnemonic); homne /'onə/ (man); alûmn /a'lun/ (pupil).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • n, nn
    • Normally pronounced /n/. Ex: noit /'noĭt/ (night); poneir /pu'nir/ (to put down); canna /'kɑna/ (rod, cane); cantar /kɑn'tar/ (to sing); can /'kan/ (dog). This is also the phonemic interpretation of the nasal vowel preceding l or r in words like anlo /'anlu/ (ring), quenro /'kenru/ (crab).
    • When the combination <nn> is derived from the Latin prefix in- + a root beginning with <n>, it is pronounced doubled /nn/. Ex: innocent /innu'tʃɛnt/ (innocent); innovar /innu'var/ (to innovate).
    • The labiodental nasal appearing before <f> and <v> is spelt <n>, but is considered to be an allophone of the phoneme /m/. Ex: enfant /ɛm'fɑnt/ (child); invitar /imvi'tar/ (to invite). Note that before <ph> the spelling of this nasal is <m>.
    • In the sequences <-ndm-> and <-ntm->, seen in adverbs like grandment /grɑm'mɛnt/ (largely) and abûndantment /abundɑm'mɛnt/ (abundantly), <n> is pronounced /m/.
    • Word-final <n> becomes /m/ when immediately followed by a word beginning with a labial or labiodental consonant. Ex: en Pariys /ɛm pa'røĭs/ (in Paris); un viatx /ym 'vjatʃ/ (a trip).
  • nh
    • Generally, this is pronounced /ɲ/. Ex: nhive /'ɲivə/ (snow); âranha /ɑ'raɲa/ (spider); sonh /'soɲ/ (dream).
    • Exceptionally, when the prefixes an- or in- precede roots beginning with <h>, the combination <nh> is pronounced <n>. Ex: anhydrat /ani'drat/ (anhydrate); inhumán /iny'man/ (inhuman).
  • nm
    • This combination is generally pronounced /m/. Ex: anma /'ama/ (soul).
    • When the <m> is part of the adverbial ending -ment, the combination becomes /mm/. Ex: comunment /kumym'mɛnt/ (commonly).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • o
    • In open stressed syllables: /o/. Ex: foc /'fok/ (fire); folha /'foʎa/ (leaf).
    • In open unstressed syllables: /u/. Ex: voleir /vu'lir/ (to want); canto /'kɑntu/ (I sing); roar /ru'ar/ (to implore); non /nun/ (not); lo /lu/ (him, it, the [masc.acc.sing]). Also in son /sun/ or /'sun/ (they are), which may or may not be stressed.
    • In closed syllables (stressed or unstressed): /ɔ/. Ex: conto /'kɔntu/ (I count); contam /kɔn'tam/ (we count).
  • ó
    • Always /o/. Ex: cór /'kor/ (heart); avión /a'vjon/ (airplane); cantó /kɑn'to/ (she sang).
  • ô
    • Always /ɔ/. Ex: prôxim /'prɔsim/ (next); chlôr /'klɔr/ (chlorine); côtounha /kɔ'tuɲa/ (quince).
  • oa
    • In recent loanwords from English: /o/ (stressed), /ɔ/ (unstressed). Ex: coach /'kotʃ/; goal /'gol/, toast /'tost/, toastar /tɔs'tar/ (to toast).
    • Otherwise, the vowels belong to different syllables, as in: roar /ru'ar/ (to implore); roa /'roa/ (he implores); inchoatiyv /inkua'tøĭf/ (inchoative); oasis /u'azis/ (oasis).
  • oe
    • This relatively rare digraph is pronounced /ø/. Ex: coeva /'køva/ (owl); oesophag /øzu'fag/ (esophagus).
  • oi, oy
    • Except before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, these combinations are pronounced /oĭ/ when stressed. Ex: noit /'nt/ (night); soy /'s/ (I am).
    • Before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, the combination <oi> (there are no examples of <oy>) is pronounced /o/ when stressed. Ex: coiça /'kotʃa/ (shell, pod); coixa /'koʃa/ (thigh).
    • Except before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, the pronunciation is /uĭ/ when unstressed. Ex: noi /n/ (to us); coifura /k'fyra/ (hairdo); royal /r'al/ (royal).
    • Before the consonant /ʃ/, the pronunciation of <oi> is /u/ when unstressed. Ex: coixiyn /ku'ʃøĭn/ (cushion).
    • In some geographical and family names, the combination <oy> is pronounced /u/. Ex: Ghoyla /'gula/; Maroyni /ma'runi/.
  • ôi
    • This rare combination is pronounced /oĭ/. It occurs in unstressed syllables only. Ex: ôitanta /'tɑnta/ (eighty).
  • oo
    • In some rare proper nouns, this is pronounced /o/. Ex: Soolh /'soʎ/; Nooç /'notʃ/.
    • In words of English origin, the combination is read as /u/. Ex: football /fud'bɑl/; poodle /'pudəl/.
    • Otherwise the combination is considered to be a sequence of two phonemes. Ex: zoología /zuulu'dʒia/ (zoology); coordinar /krdi'nar/ (to coordinate).
  • ou, óu
    • This frequent combination is always pronounced /u/. Ex: houra /'ura/ (hour); cognousco /ku'nusku/ (I know); cangaróu /kɑnga'ru/ (kangaroo); jalousament /ʒaluza'mɛnt/ (jealously).
  • ôu
    • Always /oŭ/. Ex: nôu /'n/ (nine; new); jôudzi /'ʒdzi/ (Thursday).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • p, pp
    • Normally /p/. Ex: paire /'paĭrə/ (father); capeir /ka'pir/ (to catch); septembre /sɛp'tɛmbrə/ (September); sûppa /'supa/ (soup); cap /'kap/ (chief).
    • Silent initially before <n>, <s> and <t>. Ex: pneumonía /nømu'nia/ (pneumonia); psychología /sikulu'dʒia/ (psychology); ptêrodâctyl /tɛru'dɑktil/ (pterodactyl).
  • ph
    • Always /f/. Ex: philosophía /filuzu'fia/ (philosophy); phouca /'fuka/ (seal [animal]); sâphiyr /sɑ'føĭr/ (sapphire).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • q
    • Very rare by itself (i.e. without a following <u>), occurring only finally or before word-final <s>. Always pronounced /k/. Ex: cinq /'tʃink/ (five); antiq /ɑn'tik/ (antique); soliloqs /suli'loks/ (soliloquies [acc.pl.]).
  • qu, cqu
    • Pronounced /kw/ before <a>. Ex: quand(o) /'kwand(u)/ (when); quatro /'kwatru/ (four); aqua /'akwa/ (water).
    • Pronounced /k/ otherwise: quereir /kə'rir/ (to search); quinci /'kintʃi/ (fifteen); quota /'kota/ (quota); acquereir /ɑkə'rir/ (to acquire).
    • Used only before the front vowels <e> and <i>, it is always pronounced /kw/: essoun /kwɛ'sun/ (question); rêiem /rɛkwjem/ (requiem).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • r, rr
    • Generally pronounced /r/. Ex: rideir /ri'dir/ (to laugh); part /'pɑrt/ (part); ceira /'tʃira/ (wax); tzerra /'tsɛra/ (earth); patroun /pɑt'run/ (skipper); ferr /'fɛr/ (iron).
    • When the combination <rr> is derived from the Latin prefix in- + a root beginning with <r>, it is pronounced doubled /rr/. Ex: irrêgolar /irrɛgu'lar/ (irregular); irrevocábil /irrəvu'kabil/ (irrevocable).
    • The letter <r> is silent between the glide /ĭ/ and the phoneme /s/. Ex: cantêirs /kɑn'teĭs/ (geldings [acc.pl.]); ciyrs /'tʃøĭs/ (chickpeas [acc.pl.]).
    • The letter <r> is also silent, when immediately followed by an article or a pronoun beginning with <l> or <s>, at the end of infinitives and in the words per (by) and por (for). Ex: cantar-lo /kɑn'talu/ (to sing it); demitteir-se /dəmi'tisə/ (to resign); finiyr-los /fi'nøĭlus/ (to finish them); per lo paire /pəlu 'paĭre/ (by the father); por sû honour /pusu u'nur/ (for his honour).
  • rh, rrh
    • These combinations are pronounced /r/. Ex: rhinocer /rinu'tʃer/ (rhinoceros); diarrheia /djɑ'ria/ (diarrhea).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • s (but see below for <ss>)
    • Initially, before voiceless consonants and after consonants it is pronounced /s/. Ex: sal /'sal/ (salt); sport /'spɔrt/ (sport); castanha /kɑs'taɲa/ (chestnut); morsa /'mɔrsa/ (bit; walrus); ûrs /'urs/ (bear [n.]).
    • Between vowels, except after prefixes ending in a vowel, it is pronounced /z/. Ex: rosa /'roza/ (rose); casar /ka'zar/ (to marry).
    • After prefixes ending in a vowel, the pronunciation /s/ is retained. Ex: asexual /asɛk'swal/ (asexual); disemplicat /disɛmpli'kat/ (unemployed).
    • Before voiced consonants, <s> is pronounced /z/. Ex: asbest /az'bɛst/ (asbestos); isla /'izla/ (island); comunismo /kumy'nizmu/ (communism); asno /'aznu/ (donkey); Israel /izra'el/ (Israel). This rule also applies to asthma /'azma/ and isthmo /'izmu/ (isthm).
    • In word-final position after a vowel, most cases of <s> are subject to liaison: pronounced /z/ if a word beginning with a vowel or a voiced consonant follows immediately, otherwise pronounced /s/. Ex: los hoy perduts /luz oĭ per'dyts/ (I have lost them); mi lo darás demán? /milu da'raz dəmán?/ (will you give it to me tomorrow?); BUT: las perdo dâ vista /lɑs 'pɛrdu dɑ 'vista/ (I am losing them from my sight); vôs sêis traz bén-vêniyt /vɔs'seĭs 'traz bɛn vɛ'nøĭt/ (you are very welcome).
    • Liaison does not apply to word-final <s> that alternates with <ss> in other declined or conjugated forms of the same paradigm. Thus the following words are always pronounced with /s/: és /'es ~ ɛs/ (is); metús /mə'tys/ (same); bûs /'bus/ (bus); lapis /'lapis/ (pencil).
    • -s is silent in the Tundrian pronunciation of many French placenames, e.g.: Chartres /'ʃɑrtrə/, Amiens /am'jɛn/.
  • sc
    • Before <e>, <i> and <y> (accented or not), this combination is pronounced /ʃ/. Ex: sceina /'ʃina/ (scene, stage); scirma /'ʃirma/ (screen); Scylla /'ʃila/ (Scylla [Greek myth.]); descendeir /dɛʃen'dir/ (to descend).
    • In other situations, the combination is pronounced /sk/. Ex: escala /ɛs'kala/ (ladder); escola /ɛs'kola/ (school); oscur /ɔs'kyr/ (dark); escriveir /ɛskri'vir/ (to write); disc /'disk/ (disk, dial).
    • Always /ʃ/ (used only before the back vowels <a>, <o> or <u>). Ex: aa /'ɑʃa/ (axe); ónta /'ʃonta/ (joke); cognout /kunɔ'ʃyt/ (known).
  • sh
    • In some recent loanwords and proper nouns from other languages, this digraph is pronounced /ʃ/. Ex: fashion /'faʃun/; Hiroshima /iru'ʃima/.
  • ss
    • This is the only doubled consonant letter in Tundrian that has a pronunciation different from its single counterpart (when between vowels). It is always /s/ and is not subject to liaison at the end of words. Ex: passar /pɑ'sar/ (to pass); qüessoun /kwɛ'sun/ (question); esseir /ɛ'sir/ (to be); tûss /'tus/ (cough).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • t, tt
    • Usually pronounced /t/. Ex: teica /'tika/ (shop); treis /'tris/ (three); quatro /'kwɑtru/ (four); mitteir /mi'tir/ (to put); saltar /sɑl'tar/ (to jump); lat /'lat/ (side); pont /'pɔnt/ (bridge).
    • Silent between a consonant and the adverbial ending -ment. Ex: abûndantment /abundɑm'mɛnt/ (abundantly); brillantment /brilam'mɛnt/ (brilliantly). Also silent in the rare initial combination <tm>, as in tmêse /'mɛzə/ (tmesis).
  • th
    • Usually /t/. Ex: theatro /tɛ'ɑtru/ (theatre); thrón /'tron/ (throne); cathedral /katə'dral/ (cathedral); myth /'mit/ (myth).
    • Silent between <s> and <m>, as in asthma /'azma/; isthmo /'izmu/.
  • ts, ths, tz
    • All these combinations are pronounced /ts/. It should be noted that <ts> and <ths> occur only in final position, when the ending <s> is added on to word-final <t> or <th>. Ex: tzeneir /tsə'nir/ (to hold); natzoun /na'tsun/ (nation); partzal /pɑr'tsal/ (partial); pûtz /'puts/ (well [n.]); pots /'pots/ (you can); myths /'mits/ (myths [acc.pl.]).
  • tx
    • This combination is always pronounced /tʃ/. Ex: Txad /'ad/ (Chad); auratx /ɔ'ra/ (thunderstorm); viatx /'vja/ (travel).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • u
    • The normal pronunciation of this letter is /y/. Ex: un /yn/ (a, one); luna /'lyna/ (moon); devum /də'vym/ (we had to); tu /'ty/ (you [sing.]).
    • In the combinations <gu> and <qu>, when followed by another vowel (except <a>), <u> is silent. Ex: guerra /'gɛra/ (war); quindzi /'kindzi/ (forthnight); quota /'kota/ (quota).
    • In other situations where <u> is between a consonant (incl. <h>) and a vowel, it is pronounced /w/. Ex: dual /'dwal/ (dual); guastar /gwɑs'tar/ (to spoil); huest /'wɛst/ (west); annual /ɑn'wal/ (annual); quatro /'kwɑtru/ (four); Suîtza /'switsa/ (Switzerland); instituîr /insti'twir/ (to institute).
  • ú
    • Always /y/. Ex: illúmina /il'lymina/ (it illuminates); rêpública /rɛ'pyblika/ (republic); baúr /ba'yr/ (trunk [luggage]); devú /də'vy/ (she had to).
  • û
    • Always /u/. Ex: ûmbra /'umbra/ (shadow); mûnd /'mund/ (world); tabû /ta'bu/ (taboo); paûr /pa'ur/ (fear); sinûs /'sinus/ (sine).
  • ü
    • This letter is never used for a stressed vowel. Its most common use is to show that after <g> or <q> it is to be pronounced /w/ before a front vowel (<e> or <i>). Ex: lingüe /'lingwə/ (languages, tongues); qüessoun /kwɛ'sun/ (question).
    • A second, quite rare, use of <ü> is to show that in the combination <eü> it is to be pronounced /ɛy/ and not /ø/ as <eu> would be. Ex: reünioun /rɛy'njun/ (meeting).
  • ui, úi, uy
    • Generally speaking, these digraphs are pronounced /yĭ/. Ex: fruita /'frta/ (fruit); devúi /də'v/ (I had to); ruyna /'rna/ (ruin).
    • Before the consonants /tʃ/ and /ʃ/, the combination <ui> is read as /y/. Ex: juiç /'ʒytʃ/ (judge); luix /'lyʃ/ (luxury).
    • After <g> or <q>, unless immediately followed by a consonant, the <u> in <ui> is considered to be part of the combination <silent u> + <i>. Ex: guidar /gi'dar/ (to guide); guiysa /'gøĭza/ (disguise); quint /'kint/ (fifth).
    • In some proper nouns, <uy> is read simply as /y/. Ex: Huyra /'yra/; Rasuyta /ra'zyta/.
  • ûi, ûy
    • These combinations are normally read as /uĭ/. Ex: cûit /'kt/ (elbow).
    • Before the consonant /ʃ/, the digraph <ûi> is simply /u/. Ex: cûixta /'kuʃta/ (pillow); rûix /'ruʃ/ (red).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • v
    • Normally pronounced /v/. Ex: viyn /'vøĭn/ (wine); cavail /ka'vaĭl/ (horse); cûrva /'kurva/ (curve).
    • In word-final position, or before word-final <s>, the pronunciation of <v> is /f/. Ex: natiy /na'tøĭf/; deivs /'difs/ (you have to). Word-final <v> is subject to liaison, as in: el guiyda natiyv és arripat /əl 'gøĭda na'tøĭv ɛs ɑri'pat/ (the native guide has arrived). This rule does not apply to nov /'nov/ (new; nine) because this form occurs only before words beginning with a vowel or a silent h.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • w
    • Normally restricted to recent loanwords from English and German, this letter is pronounced /v/. Ex: wagón /va'gon/ (wagon); watt /'vɑt/; whisky /'viski/.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • x
    • The most common value of this letter is /ʃ/. This is the pronunciation initially (incl. in words of Greek origin), as in: xac /'ʃak/ (chess); xedeir /ʃə'dir/ (to sit); xîc /'ʃik/ (dry); xoma /'ʃoma/ (heap, set); xûrd /'ʃurd/ (deaf); xênophobía /ʃɛnufu'bia/ (xenophobia).
    • /ʃ/ is also the pronunciation of <x> within words whenever the letter <i> (pronounced or not) precedes, as in: laixar /la'ʃar/ (to allow, let); pêix /'peʃ/ (fish); mixtura /miʃ'tyra/ (mixture); coixa /'koʃa/ (thigh); rûix /'ruʃ/ (red). In a few other words, incl. some proper names, we find /ʃ/ even when not following <i>. Ex: touxi /'tuʃi/ (also); Naax /'naʃ/.
    • In the same context (i.e. after <i>), the pronunciation of <x> is /ʒ/ if it is followed by a voiced consonant. Ex: beixla /'biʒla/ (beetle); fêlixment /fɛliʒ'mɛnt/ (fortunately); fraixno /'fraʒnu/ (ash-tree).
    • The pronunciation of <x> is /s/ (1) when followed by a voiceless consonant (except after <i>), e.g.: expêitar /ɛspeĭ'tar/ (to expect);  têxtil /'tɛstil/ (textile); excusa /ɛs'kyza/ (excuse); and (2) in Bruxella /bry'sɛla/ (Brussels), mâxim /'mɑsim/ (maximum) and prôxim /'prɔsim/ (next), and their declined forms.
    • The pronunciation of <x> is /z/ in words beginning with aux- and ex- followed by a vowel, <h> or a voiced consonant. Ex: auxiliar /ɔzi'ljar/ (auxiliary); exercitar /ɛzɛrtʃi'tar/ (to practice); exhauriyr /ɛzɔ'røĭr/ (to exhaust); exmagar /ɛzma'gar/ (to dismay). This rule does not apply to the prefix ex- (former), which is always pronounced /ɛks-/ (see below for an example).
    • In all other cases, <x> is pronounced /ks/. Ex: ex-prêsident /'ɛks prɛzi'dɛnt/ (ex-president); axe /'ɑksə/ (axis); hexavalent /ɛksava'lɛnt/ (hexavalent); sex /'sɛks/ (sex); sexualitat /sɛkswali'tat/ (sexuality); tôxic /'tɔksik/ (toxic).
  • xc
    • Before <e>, <i> and <y> (accented or not), this combination is pronounced /ʃ/. Ex: excellent /ɛʃɛ'lɛnt/ (excellent); excitar /ɛʃi'tar/ (to excite).
    • In other situations, the combination is pronounced /sk/. Ex: excavar /ɛska'var/ (to excavate); excusa /ɛs'kyza/ (excuse); excludeir /ɛskly'dir/ (to exclude).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • y
    • Before a vowel, <y> is normally considered to be a consonant pronounced /j/. Ex: yera /'jera/ (was); yelta /'jɛlta/ (hilt); yaûrt /ja'urt/ (yoghurt); hyena /'jena/ (hyena); baryûm /'barjum/ (baryum).
    • Otherwise, <y> is a vowel, pronounced /i/. Ex: ytriûm /'itrium/ (yttrium); hypothese /ipu'tezə/ (hypothesis); hymn /'in/ (hymn); jury /'ʒyri/ (jury).
  • ý
    • This rare letter corresponds to <y> (pronounced /i/) under irregular stress. Ex: phýsica /'fizika/ (physics); sýmbol /'simbul/ (symbol).

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • z
    • Normally, this letter is pronounced /z/. Ex: zaveit /za'vit/ (shark); zôna /'zɔna/ (zone); pezar /pə'zar/ (to weigh); autorizar /ɔturi'zar/ (to authorize).
    • In word-final position, <z> is subject to liaison just as most occurrences of <s> in this position: pronounced /z/ if a word beginning with a vowel or a voiced consonant follows immediately, otherwise pronounced /s/. Ex: payeiz /pa'is/ (country); meiz /'mis/ (month), BUT: cel meiz és el melhour por viatxar /tʃəl 'miz ɛs əl mə'ʎur pur vja'tʃar/ (this month is the best for travelling).
    • The rare cases of <z> before a voiceless consonant are pronounced /s/. Ex: Pezten /'pɛstən/ (city in southern Tundria); aztec /ɑs'tek/ (Aztec).
    • The combination <zz> in words of recent Italian origin is pronounced /ts/. Ex: pizza /'pitsa/; mozzadella /mɔtsa'dɛla/.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


HOMOPHONES

As in other languages with a historical-etymological spelling system, there are homophones in Tundrian distinguishable only by their spelling. Here are the most common ones (with pronunciation shown):

/'a/
a (to, at)
A (the letter A)
ha (he has)

/a'bɔrts/
abords (2nd pers. sing pres.subj. of abordar [to board])
aborts (2nd pers. sing pres.subj. of abortar [to abort])

/'ɛr/
aer (air)
R (the letter R)

/'as/
as (ace)
has (you have)

/a'vit/
aveit (fir tree)
haveit (imper.plural of haveir [to have])

/avr'ia, -s, -n; avri'am; avr'iaĭs/
avrîa, -s, -n; avriam, -iais (forms of the imperfect of the verb 'avriyr' [to open])
havrîa, -s, -n; havriam, -iais (forms of the conditional of the verb 'haveir' [to have])

/'tʃi/
C (the letter C)
ci (here)

/'kaĭl/
cail (street; corn [on the foot])
cayl (puppy)

/'kɔl/
caul (cabbage)
côl (mountain pass)

/kɔ'løĭna/
cauliyna (blade [of grass])
colliyna (hill)

/'kɔma/
cauma (heat-wave)
côma (coma)
comma (comma)

/'tʃits/
ceits (sea monsters, whales [acc.pl.])
cits (2nd pers. sing. pres.subj. of citar [to quote])

/'kor/
chór (choir)
cór (heart)

/'kotʃə/
coce (he cooks)
coice (shells, pods)   

/'kurt/
court (court [of law])
cûrt (short)

/'kuvru/
couvro (I cover)
cûvro (copper)

/'kyna/
Cugna (Cugna [a city in southern Tundria])
cuna (cradle)

/'kuĭts/
cûits (elbows [acc.pl.])
cûyts (2nd pers. sing. pres.subj. of cûytar [to nurse])

/'dan/
damn (damage)
dan (they give)

/də'leĭt/
delêit (delight)
deleyt (choice)

/du'tʃim/
doceim (we teach)
douceim (twelfth)

/du'tʃɛnti/
docenti (lecturers)
doucenti (two hundred)

/'dus - 'duz/
dos (you [polite form, acc.pl.])
dous (two)

/ɛ'ram / ɛ'raĭs/
êram / êrais (we/you were)
erram / errais (we/you make a mistake)

/ɛs'tila/
esteila (star)
estilla (it drops)

/'fa/
fa (he/she does)
fá (fa [musical note])

/'fɛr/
faer (to do)
ferr (iron)

/'fid/
feid (ugly)
fid (faith)

/'frøĭts/
friyds (cold [acc.pl., masc.])
friyts (fried [acc.pl., masc.])

/'fyĭta/
fuita (fled [pp., fem.sing.])
fuyta (leak)

/'gula/
Ghoyla (county and town in western Tundria)
gûla (throat)

/'ɔsta/
hosta (hostess)
osta (he uncovers)

/y'ran/
huyrán (from the county of Huyra)
Urán (Uranus)

/la/
la (the [fem.sing.])
lá (la [musical note])

/lɑs/
las (the [acc.pl.fem], before a voiceless cons.)
lass (tired, weary)

/'leĭt/
lêit (bed)
leyt (read [pp.])

/leĭ'vat/
lêivat (betrayal)
leyvat (pp. of leyvar [to lighten])

/'liɲa/
ligna (firewood)
linha (line)

/mi/
mei (me [after prep.])
mi (to me)
mí (mi [musical note])
mî (my [masc.sing.])

/'mis/
meiz (month)
mîs (my [acc.masc.pl.])
miss (put [pp.])

/'mits/
mîts (you put)
myths (myths [acc.pl.])

/mɔs'tria/
mostría (sample [n.])
mostrîa (he samples)

/'pina/
peina (fine [n.], punishment)
pinna (fin)

/'peĭra/
pêira (stone)
peyra (ewe)

/'pis - 'piz/
peiz (weight)
pis (pea)

/'pupa/
pûpa (doll)
pûppa (stern [of ship])

/pu'tim/
poteim (we can) etc.
pûteim (that we trim) etc.

/'rɔka/
rauca (hoarse [fem.sing.])
rocca (rock)

/'reĭna/
rêina (queen [ruling])
reyna (queen [consort])

/'saĭna/
saina (healthy [fem.sing.])
sayna (seine net)

/'sɔr/
saur (brown [horse colour])
sôr (father-in-law)

/'ʃina/
sceina (scene, stage)
Xina (China)

/ʃi/
sci (ski)
xi (if)

/'ʃia/
scîa (he skis)
xîa (wake [of a ship])

/si/
sei (him/her/itself [after prep.]; be [imp.sing.])
si (to him/her/itself; so)
sí (yes; si [musical note])

/'seĭs/
sêirs (serious [masc.plur.acc.])
sêis (you [pl] are)
seyls (centuries [acc.pl.])

/sula'mɛnt/
solament (only)
soulament (alone, by oneself)

/'sul/
soul (sun; only [adj.])
sûl (shrew)

/su'prima/
sûpreima (supreme [fem.sing.])
sûprima (subj.pres. 1st/3rd.pers.sing. of the verb sûprimeir [to suppress])

/ti/
T (the letter T)
tei (you [sing., after prep.])
ti (to you [sing.])
tî (uncle)

/'tɛst/
test (test)
text (text)

/'tur/
tour (tour, trip)
tûrr (tower)

/'tus/
touz (cut, shorn [pp.])
tûs (your [acc.masc.pl.])
tûss (cough [n.])

/vi/
V (the letter V)
vi (there)

/'vaĭna/
vaina (vain [fem.sing.])
vayna (sheath)

/'van/
van (they go)
ván (vain)

/'vas - 'vaz/
vas (you go)
vaz (glass [for drinking])

/'vila/
veila (sail [n.])
villa (town)

/'vinta/
veinta (sale)
vinta (bound [pp; fem.sing.])

/'vɛri/
vêri (various [nom.masc.pl.])
verri (boars)

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