Vowels and semi-vowels
Simple vowel units
The letters a, e
and o are always considered as vowels: lat,
The letters i, u and
y are considered as
consonants, semi-vowels or vowels, depending on their position:
- initially (or after an initial <h>)
they are consonants if followed by another vowel: iôn,
huest, yera, hyena;
- when they are not silent and are between a
consonant and another vowel, they are considered to be semi-vowels (e.g. in:
- otherwise they are considered to be vowels: fid,
All the other letters are considered to be
Many combinations of two letters are treated as a
single unit in Tundrian. These are called digraphs.
Among vowels, the digraphs are (items in
parentheses are variants of the items preceding them):
ae [only before r], ai (ái), au (áu),
âu, ay, ee, ei (éi), êi, eu (éu), êu, ey, ie [only in some contexts],
iû, iy (íy), oe, oi (ói, ôi), ou (óu), ôu, oy, ôy, ui (úi), ûi, uy, ûy.
Simple consonant letter units
The following letters can be used as simple
b, c, ç, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s,
t, v, w, x, z
Note that <h>, although treated as a
consonant letter, is actually silent, e.g.: <haveir> /a'vir/ 'to have';
<alcohol> /ɑlku'ol/ 'alcohol'
The following are considered as consonantal digraphs:
ch, dj, dz, gh, gn, gu [before a vowel],
lh, mn, nh, nm, ph, qu, rh, sc [before e, i and y], sç, th, tx, tz (ds,
ts), xc [before e and i], xç.
Doubled consonants, on the other hand, are not
considered as digraphs. Most consonants can be doubled in writing:
bb, cc (cç, cq), dd, ff, gg, ll, mm, nn, pp,
rr, ss, tt, vv.
It should be noted here that Tundrian does not
allow the doubling of consonants before another consonant (hence abrêivar,
aclamar and atraîr),
and only r and s can be doubled in word-final position: tûrr,