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Yād [ja:d] is a descendant of the Æðadĕ language, which just like Ayasth and Aθáta, is itself a descendant of the earlier Adāta language developed by Deiniol Jones (aka Dewrad). It was created for the "Derivation Relay" in September 2006 on the zompist board by Gábor Sándi (aka gsandi).

Phonology

Phonemes

Here follows the consonant inventory:

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b t d tʃ dʒ k ɡ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ   h
Nasal m n ɲ
Lateral l ʎ ɾ
Semivowel w j

The voiceless plosives are usually pronounced with aspiration except in final position, after a fricative or after another plosive.

The vowel inventory is as follows:

Front Unrounded Front Rounded Central Back
High i iː y: u uː
Mid High e eː ø:   o oː
Low     a a:  

Transliteration scheme

Unless noted below, phonemes are transliterated with the letter that corresponds to their IPA value.

/tʃ dʒ/ are written <ch j>.

/θ ð/ are written <th dh>.

/ʃ ʒ/ are written <sh zh>.

/ɲ/ is written <ñ>.

/ʎ/ is written <ly>, except before <i> where it is simply written <l>.

/j/ is written <y>.

/h/ is written <h> in all cases, including after consonants. Should it be necessary to write this phoneme after <t d s z>, an apostrophy will be used, e.g.: t'h, s'h.

Long vowels are written with a macron: <ī ē ā ō ū>. But no macron is needed for /ø:/ and /y:/, which are written <ö> and <ü>, respectively.

Except under the section "Sound changes" immediately below, all Yād forms are given in standard transliteration.

Sound Changes from Adāta to Æðadĕ

  1. i > j / _V: iarioba > jarjoba, hānedia > hānedja
  2. a, e > ə / unstressed: abesa > abəsə, lōzera > lōzərə
  3. b, d, g > β, ð, ɣ: jabə > jaβə, Adātə > Aðātə, gamun > ɣamun
  4. ə > nil / following or preceding a stressed syllable and always wordfinal, but never initial or after another vowel or halfvowel: aβən > aβn, ēəβ > ēəβ; Exception: pəpō, zəzāk, hápəβ and, curiously, Aðātə remain
  5. Two geminate consonants following each other are simplified to one: azz > az
  6. ls > lz: lsō > lzō
  7. n, l, r > ṇ, ḷ, ṛ / final and preceded by a consonant: aln > alṇ, khīrl > khīrḷ, lōzr > lōzṛ
  8. p(h), t(h), k(h) > ɸ, þ, x / _C (but not if preceding /j/): áplo > áɸlo, záthṇ > záþṇ
  9. regressive assimilation: áβs > áɸs, ásð > ázð, átzən > ádzən, ðiézk > ðiésk
  10. ai, ei, oi, au, eu > aj, ej, oj, aw, ew: eul > ewl, dei > dej
  11. á, é, í, ó, ú > ǽ, ié, í, ú, ué: Ádātə > Ǽðātə
  12. ué, ié > wé, jé
  13. Stress shifts to initial syllable
  14. ə > a / stressed: əpjāp > apjāp
  15. p, t, k > b, d, g / initial, V_V or final after a vowel: ǽk > ǽg
  16. Unstressed long vowels are shortened: abjāb > abjab
  17. lz > ḷz / wordinitial: lzō > ḷzō
  18. ɣ > h / initial: ɣǽmun > hǽmun
  19. ɣ > x: zūlɣ > zūlx

Sound Changes from Æðadĕ to Yād

1.    Stressed short vowels: ǽ and é merge as phonemic /e/ = [ɛ]; phonetic [ɔ] remains but is best analyzed as phonemic /o/; phonemic /i/ and /u/ remain and are phonetic [ɪ] and [ʊ]; phonemic /a/ is retained as such.

2.    Stressed long vowels show a vowel shift:  ā > ō, ē > ī, ī > oi, ō > ū, ū > ü (always long). But long ī remains as such in closed syllables and does not diphthongize to oi.

3.    Short diphthongs and triphthongs (i.e. short vowels + /j/, /w/) develop as follows: aj, æj > ē, jej > (j)ē, oj > oi, uj > y; aw > au, æw > ø (always long); jew > (j)ø ( /j/ is retained only when it does not palatalize a preceding consonant). The diphthong we usually, but not always, becomes ø.

4.    Long diphthongs develop as expected from the corresponding long vowel, with shortening before the glide: āi > oi, ēi > ī; ōi > ui; āu > ou; ēu > iu.

5.    Short vowels, whether or not stressed, become long in the last open syllable of the word. This change happened after the changes outlined above but before the dropping of weak unstressed vowels (as given in 6.). When the change applies to [ə], it becomes ā: wephonĕphĕna > wepnāpa belittle.

6.    Widespread weakening of short vowels in unstressed syllables: basically, a > [ə] is retained in word-final position, but is dropped unless necessary for pronouncing otherwise difficult consonant clusters. Other vowels are dropped finally (unless needed for support), internally front short vowels reduce to /i/ and all back short vowels reduce to /u/.  Since [a] and [ə] are in complementary distribution, they are best considered as allophones of the phoneme /a/. Syllabic /m n/ add an /a/ before them; syllabic /l r/ add an /u/.

7.    Initial, post-consonantal and final consonants: there is no need to show aspiration of voiceless stops, as aspiration (as in English) is automatic except after certain other consonants (when it is predictably absent). Thus we can write phonemically: /p t k/. β > v; ɸ > f; x > h. Palatalization: before /j/ and (original) /i/ and /i:/, dental and velar consonants become palatalized: k, t > tʃ; g, d > dʒ; s > ʃ; z > ʒ; n > ɲ; l > ʎ.

8.    Intervocalic  ð is deleted. The resulting vowel clusters are resolved as best as can be (e.g.:  Æðadĕ >  Yād)

9.    The phone [x] is generally preserved intervocally and before voiceless consonants, but as it is in complementary distribution with the phone [h], it is best assigned to the same phoneme /h/. However, [x] either becomes [g] before voiced consonants or it is lost as in Kāxd > Kōd. In final position, [x] is normally lost, with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel: æx > ē of.

10. /w/ is deleted after labial consonants (e.g. vwe > ve four); /j/ is deleted after palatals.

11. Some consonant clusters are simplified. E.g.: lr > rr: nælror > nerru horse.  

12. Word-final -r in nouns and adjectives tends to be deleted, because it is identified with the eragtive suffix -(u)r. Example: nælror > nerru horse.

13. The initial cluster ḷz > ulz. E.g.: ḷze > ulzi word.

Grammar

Nominal Morphology

Plural

The Plural is formed by the prefix op-, which becomes ov- before voiced occlusives or fricatives and of- before voiceless stops and fricatives, as well as before laterals and nasals. Additionally, long vowels are shortened because stress shifts to the initial syllable. Remember also that aspirated initial consonants are spoken without aspiration as soon as the prefix is added.

The vowel alternation ō / ā is quite frequent in the pluralization of monosyllabic nouns with internal ō. But it is not universal: ōm sister, opōm sisters.

Pluralisation is not required if the noun is accompanied by numerals, or by indefinite adjectives such as iz every or nem some.

Examples:

  • tōl moon, oftāl moons
  • yōj prisoner, opyāj prisoners
  • dhyesk king, ovdhyesk kings, but: iz dhyesk every king
  • ithk mistress, opithk mistresses

Possessives

Yād retains the marking of possession with suffixes. There has been an analogical restructuring of the actual endings:

Singular Plural
1 -ēg
2 -au -aug
3 -āg

Word-final -i and -u (in diphthongs generally) change to -y- and -w- before these suffixes. Word-final -a is replaced by the possessive endings (thus there is no way to distinguish between "my king" and "my queen", both are dhyeskē).

Examples:

  • dhyesk king, dhyeskēg  our king
  • ithk mistress, ithkē my mistress
  • iu nobleman, iwau your noble man
  • aūna girl, aūnā his girl , aunēg our girl

Short stem vowels in words ending with a single consonants are lengthened before the possessive endings:

  • miz father, mīzā his/her father

2nd person plural forms are used to express respect: dhyeskaug your king/queen (e.g. when talking to an ambassador).

Adjectives

Adjectives follow the noun they describe (dhyeskē bīra my brave king), but they do not agree with it in number (ovdhyeskē bīra  my brave kings). The comparative is formed by suffixing -niz (or -iz if the adjective ends in -n), the superlative by suffixing -yal (which may induce palatalization). Word-final -a is dropped before the comparative and superlative endings unless an unpronounceable cluster would develop.

Examples:

  • bīra, bīrniz, bīryal - brave, braver, bravest
  • tīrn, tīrniz, tīrñal - beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful
  • dhūdin, dhūdiniz, dhūdiñal - holy, holier, holiest
  • ūv, ūvniz, ūvyal - happy, happier, happiest

For emphasis it is also possible to add yel very in front of the Superlative. But yel cannot be used before the comparative.

Example: dhyesk (yel) bīryal the bravest king.

There are some common adjectival prefixes:

e- (en- before vowels)[from the negative prefix - / æ-]: un- . E.g.: ebīra cowardly, edhūdin unholy, enūv unhappy)

ēg [from the preposition ēga]: counter-, opposite. E.g.: ēgbīra brave in a different way, ēgūv happy in a different way

Å

Ergative (subject) marker -ur

The ergative marker suffix -ur/r is suffixed to the last part of the noun phrase when it is the subject of a transitive verb. It is important to realize that this suffix is added before an appositional noun or a relative phrase is applied. By analogy, it has also been introduced into negative sentences (when there is a direct object).

The ending -ur is added to consonants and long vowels. After short vowels, only -r is added.

Examples:

  • dhyesk king, dhyeskur king  [erg.]
  • dhyeska queen, dhyeskar queen [erg.]
  • ithkē my mistress, ithkēur my mistress  [erg.]
  • aūnau yel tīrñalur your most beautiful girl [erg.]
  • Shenkanur, dhyesk hīz Shenkan, the great king  [erg.]
  • An abēnsh ithk. (not cry-PRES mistress  = The mistress is not crying).
  • An rūlsh ithkur aūna. (not love-PRES mistress-ERG girl = The mistress does not love the girl)

Adverbs

Adverbs can be formed synthetically by prefixing an adjective with kā(d)- (derived from kād 'road, path'):

kābīra bravely, kādūv happily

Adverbs precede the verb they modify and are not marked otherwise: 

  • Ye kādūv nun I went happily

As opposed to:

  • Ye, ūv, nun I, the happy one, went

Demonstratives and Quantifiers

Yād has maintained Æðadĕ's two-way deixis:

  •  Pl. zōg - this, these
  • she Pl. sheg - that, those

Here follows a list of Quantifiers:

  • nem some
  • iz all
  • ur every, each

Both Demonstratives and Quantifiers precede the noun they modify; if the noun is preceded by a demonstrative or quantifier, the plural prefix op- is always omitted.

Examples:

  • zōg dhyesk these kings
  • nem aūna some girls

Numerals

Cardinal Ordinal x10
1 ji lūji
2 ye lūye yerū
3 zūzū lūzū zūzūrū
4 ve lūve verū
5 dhū lūu dhūrū
6 is lūis īrū
7 men lūmen merū
8 hwedh lūhwedh hwedhrū
9 ñel lūñel ñoirū
10 lūrū yēp

The word for thousand is sün.

The long vowel in ten is by analogy with the words for 3 and 5.  zūzū three has reduplication to avoid confusion with dhū five.

There has been extensive remodelling in the ordinal and decimal series.

Like in Finnish or Vulgar Latin, the numeral 1 may indicate indefinity: dhyesk ji a king, some king. As can be seen from the example, numerals follow the noun they modify. Numerals do not take the plural: aūna is six girls.

Higher numbers are combined with un and after the first named counter, but no connector after.

Examples:

  • 15: rū un dhū 
  • 32: zūzūrū  un ye
  • 86: hwedhrū un is
  • 152: yēp un dhūrū ye
  • 2006: ye sün un is

Personal Pronouns

Normal Ergative Oblique Vocative
1 sg ye yēr yen -
2 sg dho dhōr dhon dhō
3 sg e ēr en -
1 pl yeg yegru oin -
2 pl dhog+ dhogru lōkun dhōg
3 pl eg egru ōn -

Only the 2nd person vocatives have survived.

Personal pronouns are not normally used for 3rd person inanimate referents (except in personification, e.g. in poetry). Normally, the demonstrative  she it, sheg they are used:

She sōdsh It's beginning.

Yēr uhchīksh sheg il dhon. I will throw them (inanimate) to you.

2nd person plural forma are used to express respect: Dhog, dhyeskē ... You, my king...

Verbal Morphology

Yād has kept the Æðadĕ verbal system relatively faithfully. Nevertheless, there has been quite extensive regularization. The singular and plural are only distinguished in the Past tense.

Past Present Future
Indicative Ind. Perfective Ind. Imperfective Opt. Imperfective
Imperative Imp. Imperfective
Optative Opt. Perfective Opt. Imperfective Paraphrased
Obligative Oblig. Perfective Oblig. Imperfective Paraphrased

Verbs are usually given in the Indicative Present Pl, which is the least inflected form. E.g. ēv say, zhēma live, hēva drink.


Endings

Past Present Future
Sg Pl    
Indicative -n -v -sh uk-sh
Imperative -
Optative uk-n uk-v uk-sh üsh VN+
Obligative so-n so-v sō-sh sūsh VN+

(+) VN = Verbal noun

The Æðadĕ imperative prefix ī- has been lost in Yād:  the imperative is now the verbal root, in both the singular and the plural. On the other hand, the singular ending has been extended to the plural in all tenses except the past.

The future obligative has been re-formed on the basis of the present and the past of the same - by prefixing the indicative forms with s(o)-.

Verb Stems & Ending Varieties

The verbal stem is considered to be that part of the verbal root from which the final -a (if there is one) has been dropped. Thus the stem of ēv say is ēv-; the stem of  zhēma live is zhēm-

Past verbal forms in verbs ending in a consonant add -in (sing.) and -iv (pl.); those ending in a vowel add -n and -v:  (so ēv, ēvin, ēviv say; zhēma, zhēman, zhēmav live.). However, some verbs ending in a consonant add -an and -av, so that it is customary in dictionaries to always provide the past singular form: myezāg, myezāgan celebrate (from Æðadĕ mjezagon).

In the present, the ending -sh is added to the verbal stem. The final consonant of the verbal stem becomes devoiced (if it can be) before the present ending -sh:  hēva, hēfsh drink ; jīga, jīksh throw. If the final consonant of the stem is th, s, sh, ch, dh, z, zh or j, however, a connecting vowel -a- is inserted before the -sh ending: bilēza, bilēzash send.

The prefix uk of the Optative and Future Indicative only remain in front of h (ukhēfsh will drink). If the stem begins with a vowel, m, n, l or r, or any other voiced consonant, it becomes ug: ugēfsh will say, ugnūnsh, will go; ugzhēmsh will live. If the stem of the verb begins with a voiceless consonant, it becomes uh: uhtōlag will shine. For what happens when the stem begins with a voiced plosive, see below under Devoicing of initial voiced plosives.

The Obligative prefix so is shortened to s in front of vowels, half-vowels and p, f, t and ksēfsh has to say, stōlaksh has to shine. When the verbal stem begins with b, d or g, see below under Devoicing of initial voiced plosives.

Example Conjugation

ēv Past Present Future
say Sg Pl    
Indicative ēvin ēviv ēfsh ugēfsh
Imperative ēv
Optative ugēvin ugēviv ugēfsh üs evin 
Obligative sēvin sēviv sēfsh sugēfsh

hēva Past Present Future
drink Sg Pl    
Indicative hēvan hēvav hēfsh ukhēfsh
Imperative hēva
Optative ukhēvan ukhēvav ukhēfsh üs hevin
Obligative sohēvan sohēvav sohēfsh sukhēfsh

The Verbal Noun can be formed by omitting the last vowel of the Present Plural and adding  -in (which will palatalize the final consonant of the root if it can: rēt hear, rechin hearing). Generally speaking, but not always, a long vowel in the stem will be shortened in the verbal noun. It is customary in dictionaries to provide the verbal noun as the third form: hēva, hēvan, hevin.

Devoicing of initial voiced plosives

Verbs beginning with a voiced plosive consonant (b, d, j, g) have two stems: they change this first voiced consonant into a voiceless consonant after the prefix uh-

Examples:

  • bilēza send, uhpilēzash will send
  • pull, uhchīsh will pull
  • jīga throw, uhchīksh will throw
  • gōra befriend, uhkōrsh will befriend

The obligative prefix s- has a similar effect on verbs:

  • spilēzash has to send
  • schīsh has to pull
  • schīksh has to throw
  • skōrsh has to befriend

Irregular Verbs

There are a few irregular verbs whose full inflection will be given now (they are ēt be (temporary), ē be (permanent), drink , abēna cry, nūna go, de become.

ēt Past Present Future
be Singular Plural    
Indicative in vi shi üsh
Imperative ēt
Optative weg üv üsh üsh
Obligative son sov soshi süsh

Note the analogical vowel changes, e.g. in in, was.

ē Past Present Future
be Singular Plural    
Indicative ēn ēv ēsh ugē
Imperative ē

This is a defective verb, missing optative and obligative forms.

Past Present Future
drink Singular Plural    
Indicative dwen dwev dwēsh uhtwēsh
Imperative
Optative uhtwen uhtwev uhtwēsh üs dwin
Obligative sodwen sodwev sodwēsh suhtwēsh

abēna Past Present Future
cry Singular Plural    
Indicative ābin ābiv abēnsh uhpēnsh
Imperative abēna
Optative uhpin uhpiv uhpēnsh üs ābiñin
Obligative spin spiv spēnsh suhpēnsh

 

nūna Past Present Future
go Singular Plural    
Indicative nun nuv nūnsh ugnūnsh
Imperative nūna
Optative ugnun ugnuv ugnūnsh üs nuñin
Obligative sonun sonuv sonūnsh sugnūnsh

 

de Past Present Future
become Singular Plural    
Indicative den dev desh uhtesh
Imperative de
Optative uhten uhtev uhtesh üs din
Obligative sten stev stesh suhtesh

Pluralization

Where Yād distinguishes between the singular and plural of verbs, the plural is used only with truly plural subjects. Nouns accompanied by numerals and certain indefinities (like  iz every or nem some) do not take the plural form of verbs:

Aūna is nun il Kōd. Six girls went to Kōd.

Negation

The Yād negative particle an is a direct descendant of the Æðadĕ form . The alternative form æ has disapperaed without a trace (it survives as a negative adjectival prefix e-, however).

Example of use: An abēnsh ithk. (not cry-PRES mistress  = The mistress is not crying).

Syntax

Noun Phrases

Noun phrases consist of a noun that can be modified by adjectives, appositions and genitives. The order is usually Determiner - Noun - Adjective - Genitive - Apposition.

Example: Iz dhīp yel bīryal(ur) eh Kōd ovdhyesk gēsun. 

all child very bravest of Kōd PL-king powerful
all the bravest children of Kōd, the powerful kings

Verbal Usage

The Indicative is used for reality (dho hēfsh you are drinking), the Imperative for command (hēva drink!), the Optative for wishes (dho ukhēfsh you want to drink) and the Obligative for have-to or must constructions (dho sohēfsh you have to drink).

The Verbal Noun is used in relative clauses.


The difference between ēt and ē

ēt is used for temporary states, wherease ē is used for permanent statements. For fairly evident semantic reasons, the latter cannot occur in optative or obligative constructions.

Examples:

  • Dho shi zīlul. You are here. (right now).
  • Dho shi nī dusē. You are (right now) in my house.
  • Dho ēsh nī dusē. You are (permanently) in my house.
  • Dho ēsh mīzē. You are my father. (permanent)
  • E shi garv. He/She is old  (or, rather, right now she looks/acts old).
  • E ēsh garv. He/She is old  (this is his/her state).

Relative Clauses

Relative clauses follow the noun they modify. If the person acting in the relative clause is the same as the one it refers to, it takes the normal pronoun; if it is the object of the action in the relative clause, one has to use the oblique form.

Then one needs a relative timeword ( for contemporarity with the main sentence, öz for something that happened prior to the main sentence), then the Verbal Noun and finally, depending on which pronoun (normal or oblique) was used before, the Subject or Object of the Verbal Noun.

The Verbal Noun of to be usually is omitted, leaving only the relative timewords.

Examples:

Yēr rūlan aūna en yö hochin ye.

I-ERG love-PAST-SING girl she-OBL REL-CONTEMP rape-VN I

I loved the girl I married.

 

An rūlsh opaūna ōn egru öz edalin ōn.  

not love-PRES PL-girl they-OBL they  REL-PAST rape-VN they-OBL

Girls do not love those who raped them.


Passive

A new passive voice has arisen, using the appropriate form of the verb ēt (to be [temporary]), or - rarely - ē (to be [permanent] followed by the Verbal Noun. If an ergative form is added at the end, it expresses the agent.

 

Examples:

Ye shi hupin.

I am defeated.

 

Ye in hupin.

I was defeated.

 

Ye in hupin dhyeskur.

I was defeated by the King.

 


Simple Sentences

The usual word order is S-V-O, as can be seen in the following example:

Yēr hūpin ōn.

I-ERG defeat-PAST they-OBL

I defeated them.

 

Negative sentences, have the negative particle followed by V-S-O order:

An hūpin yēr ōn.
not defeat-PAST I-ERG they-OBL

I didn't defeat them.


Complex Sentences

The S-V-O word order is changed to V-O-S if the Subject is followed by appositional nouns or a relative clause:

 

Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz.

speak-PAST thus Shenkan, king great

Thus spoke Shenkan, the great king.
 
Wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal gēsusur egru öz babezhin il yen yö dhīp.

belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-SUBJ they-ERG REL-PAST name-PARTICIPLE to I-OBL like child.

The nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.

 

Adpositional phrases are sorted manner - place - time. Other combinations are possible, but rarely used. Example:

 

Ye nun ed nerru il Ñedz geb.

I-SUB go-PAST by horse to Ñedz last-year.

Last year I went to Ñedz by horse.

Sample text

Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz, dhyesk ē les ē Kōd, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl:
 
Ilnu ye ēbin uv ūbach ē mīzē, iz dhyeskal rülz in hīgun il yen. Ovdhyeskal rülz gēsus ēviv sheb: "Mīzā ēn dhyesk bīra". Ēr hūpin ovdhyeskal ēgar. Un e den yö neg. Dhel ēsh yö dhīp e yö ebin uv ūbach ē mīzā. 
 
Hul ye ēbin uv ūbach ē mīzē, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl, ilnu ye nun il ovdhyeskal rülz eg öz hīgun il yen, ye kādūv nun il ovzōd ē Ūpē. Yēr myezāgan sheg un hebēvan dūnē il myen mel. Ye ēvin sheb: "Ō, Ithkē, ō kīn ē ovzī, wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal gēsusur egru öz bābizhin il yen yö dhīp. Un egru sōdiv beshin ovgāls ē lēsaug dhūdin, ō Ithkē! Kādedhūdin enzēba!
 
Ūpēur rētan opulzi ē mēvē. Ēr wēlan yen un sēpin vēpur il yechānē. Yēr hūpin ed ladh rū ōn eg öz mujin ēg yen.Yēr hūpin ōn. Yēr evjan opyāj un ovvü un ofhār un yēr bilēzan ōn il les ē Kōd.
  • -----------------------------------------------
  • Sinakan, the great king, the king of the land of Kāxad, brother of the sun and the moon, spoke thus:

    Before I sat on the throne of my father, alas! all the foreign countries were hostile towards me. The nearby foreign countries spoke thus: "His father was a brave king. Alas! he conquered many enemy countries. And he became a god. But luckily, he who sits on the throne of his father is a child."

    When I, brother of the sun and moon, sat on the throne of my father, before I went to the foreign countries which were being hostile towards me, happily I went to the feasts of Ophai. I celebrated them to my benefit, and I rose my hand to the shining mother. I spoke thus: "My mistress, light of the stars, the nearby countries who name me a child belittle me. And they begin to attack the border of your holy land, my mistress! Strike the heathens down!"

    Ophai heard the words of my mouth. She rose me up and she gave strength to my arm. I conquered those who rose against me in ten years. I conquered them. I captured many prisoners, oxen and sheep, and I sent them back to the land of Kāxad.


    Linear Translation

    Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz, dhyesk ē les ē Kōd, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl
    Ævi-n sjeb Sjenkĕn-ro, ðjesk xizor, ðjesk æx læs æx Kāxd, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo
    speak-PAST thus Shenkan, King great, King of Land of Kaxd, brother of sun and of moon:
    Sjenken, the great King, the King of the Land Kaxd, the brother of the Sun and of the Moon spoke thus:
    Comment: Note the absence of (ergative) subject marking, because the verb is not transitive.
     
    Ilnu ye ēbin uv ūbach ē mīzē, iz dhyeskal rülz in hīgun il yen.
    īlnu je-ro æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj, iz ðjeskĕlĕs rūlzro vi hēgon īl je-n.
    before I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, all kingdom foreign be-PAST hostile to I-OBL.
    Before I sat on the throne of my father, all foreign kingdoms were hostile to me.
    Comment: the verb in is in the singular, because the subject is accompanied by iz 'all'.
     
    Ovdhyeskal rülz gēsus ēviv sheb: "Mīzā ēn dhyesk bīra"
    Ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz gæsus-ro ævi-v sjeb, "Miz-ag-ro æn ðjesk bira.
    PL-kingdom foreign nearby speak-PAST thus: "Father-his be-PAST king brave.
    Foreign near kingdom spoke thus: "His father was a brave king.
     
    Ēr hūpin ovdhyeskal ēgar. Un e den yö neg.
    Æ-ro huphi-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs ægarĕn. Un æ-ro dæ-n jwe næg.
    he-ERG defeat-PAST PL-kingdom enemy. and he-SUB become-PAST like god.
    He defeated enemy kingdoms and he became just like a god.
    Comment: A good illustration of the difference between ergative and non-ergative subjects.
     
    Dhel ēsh yö dhīp e yö ebin uv ūbach ē mīzā. 
    Ðæl æ-th jwe ðiphi æ-ro æ jwe æb-jĕn uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizag.
    but be-PRES like child he-SUB he REL-PRES sit-VN on throne of father-his.
    But like a child is he who now sits on the throne of his father.
    Comment: note the replacement of the verb form æ-th by the analogical ēsh.
     
    Hul ye ēbin uv ūbach ē mīzē, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl,
    Hul æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj je-ro, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo,
    when I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, brother of sun and of moon,
    When I, brother of the Sun and of the Moon, sat on the throne of my father,
    Comment: One of the few cases where Yād syntax is different from Æðadĕ syntax: the sunject of the sentence shifts to the front, just after the word hul.
     
    ilnu ye nun il ovdhyeskal rülz eg öz hīgun il yen,
    īlnu je-ro nun æth ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz æg wez hēgon īl je-n,
    before I-SUB go-PAST to PL-kingdom foreign they REL-PAST hostile to I-OBL,
    before I went to the foreign kingdoms that were hostile to me,
    Comment: æth was replaced by the more common preposition for to: il.
     
    ye kādūv nun il ovzōd ē Ūpē.
    je-ro ōvo nun īl ov-zādi æx Uphaj.
    I-SUB happy-ADV go-PAST to PL-feast of Ūpē.
    I happily went to the feast of Ūpē.
    Comment: note the Yād innovation of the kād- adverb formation.
     
    Yēr myezāgan sheg un hebēvan dūnē il myen mel.    
    Je-ro mjezago-n ā-n un je-ro hæbĕvĕ-n dun-aj īl mjen mæl.
    I-ERG celebrate-PAST they-OBL and I-SUB lift-PAST hand-my to mother shining.
    I celebrated them and rose my hand to the shining mother.
    Comment: Note the use of sheg instead of the personal pronoun ōn (inanimate object). Also, as there is no change of subject between the two parts of the sentence, Yād normally does not repeat the ergative yēr.
     
    Ye ēvin sheb: "Ō, Ithkē, ō kīn ē ovzī,
    Je-ro ævi-n sjeb, "iþkj-aj æxin khēnu æx ov-ze,
    I-SUB speak-PAST thus: oh mistress-my oh light of PL-star,
    I spoke thus: "Oh my mistress light of the stars,
     
    wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal gēsusur egru öz babezhin il yen yö dhīp.
    wephonĕphĕnĕ-v je-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs gæsus-ro æg wez babæz-jĕn īl je-n jwe ðiphi.
    belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-ERG they REL-PAST name-VN to I-OBL like child.
    the nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.
     
    Un egru sōdiv beshin ovgāls ē lēsaug dhūdin, ō Ithkē!
    Un æx-ro sād-v bæs-jĕn æx ov-galĕs æx læs-aðo ðōdin, iþkj-aj æxin!
    and they-ERG begin-PAST attack-VN PL-border of land-your holy, oh mistress-my.
    And they begin to attack the borders of your holy land, o my mistress!
    Comment: Note thatYād  does not use the genitive construction for "attack of a border"; also, the plural possessive is used for "your land", as befits the land of someone deserving a lot of respect.
     
    Kādedhūdin enzēba! Ūpēur rētan opulzi ē mēvē.
    æðodin ī-enzĕb!" Uphaj-ro rætho-n ov-ḷze æx mæv-aj.
    ADV-unholy IMP-strike. Ūpē-ERG hear-PAST PL-word of mouth-my.
    Strike unholy! Uphi heard the words of my mouth.
    Comment: Note the Yād innovation of the kād- adverb, the imperative based on the verbal root, and the analogical re-formation of the op- plural before a secondary vowel in ulzi .
     
    Ēr wēlan yen un sēpin vēpur il yechānē.  
    Æ-ro wel-ṇ je-n un æ-ro sæphi-n væphor īl jetjĕn-aj.
    she-ERG rise-PAST I-OBL and give-PAST strength to arm-my.
    She rose me up and gave strength to my arm.
     
    Yēr hūpin ed ladh rū ōn eg öz mujin ēg yen.
    Je-ro huphi-n æd lað ru ā-n æg wez mug-jĕn æga je-n.
    I-ERG defeat-PAST with year ten they-OBL they PAST protest against I-OBL.
    I defeated within ten years those who protested against me.
     
    Yēr hūpin ōn.
    Je-ro huphi-n ā-n.
    I-ERG defeat-PAST they-OBL.
    I defeated them.
     
    Yēr evjan opyāj un ovvü un ofhār un yēr bilēzan ōn il les ē Kōd.
    Je-ro ævujĕ-n oph-jadi un ov-vu un of-xar un je-ro bilæz-ṇ ā-n īl læs æx Kāxd.
    I-ERG catch-PAST PL-prisoner and PL-ox and PL-sheep and I-ERG send-PAST they-OBL to land of Kōd.
    I caught prisoners and oxen and sheep and sent them to the land of Kōd.
    Comment: Yēr is repeated here because of the number of direct objects following the first verb.

    Lexicon

    Words denoted with a cross (+) were introduced into the vocabulary by gsandi.


    Verbs

    Verbs are listed with three forms: the root (infinitive), the past indicative singular and the verbal noun.

    abēna, ābin, ābiñin  v.irr. cry

    abēza, abēzan, abejin  v. make

    babēza, babēzan, babezhin v. name

    bēs, bēsan, beshin v. attack

    bilēza, bilēzan, bilezhin v. send  v. send

    chīa, chīan, chiin v. have sex, make love

    de, den, din  v.irr. become

    dü, dwen, dwin  v.irr. drink

    ē, ēn [no verbal noun] v.irr. be

    ēb, ēbin, ebin  v. sit

    edāla, edālan, edalin  v. rape

    enzēba, enzēban, enzebin  v. strike

    ēt, in v.irr. be

    ēv, ēn, evin  v. say

    evja, evjan, evjin v. catch

    +gōra, gōran, gorin v. befriend

    hebēva, hebēvan, hebevin  v. lift

    hēva, hēvan, hevin  v. drink

    hūk, hūka, huchin  v. stroke [also, slang: masturbate]

    hūp, hūpin, hupin v. defeat

    +hōta, hōtan, hochin v. marry

    īb, ībin, ibin  v. freeze

    jī, jīn, jin  v. pull

    jīga, jīgan, jijin v. throw

    melya, melyan, melin  v. suck

    mūga, mūgan, mujin  v. protest

    myezāg, myezāgan, myezajin v. celebrate (a religious feast)

    nūna, nun, nuñin  v.irr. go

    nūsa, nūsan, nushin v. die

    rēt, rētan, rechin  v. hear

    rūla, rūlan, rulin  v. love

    sēp, sēpin, sepin  v. give

    sōd, sōdin, sōjin  v. begin

    tēva, tēvan, tevin v. sin [unexplained t-, but clearly introduced to differentiate from  ēv- to say]

    tōlag, tōlgan, toljin  v. shine (like the moon)

    ūlōka, ūlōkan, ūlochin v. forget

    vnēza, vnēzan, vnezhin v. pray

    wēla, wēlan, welin  v. rise

    wepnāpa, wepnāpin, wepnapin  v. belittle


    People, Family & Society

    aūna  n. girl

    dhīp n. child

    dhyesk  n. king

    dhyeska n. queen

    dhyeskal n. kingdom

    +dus n. house

    ēgar n. enemy

    ev n. man

    ithk n. mistress, lady

    iu n. nobleman

    gāls n. border

    gōr [pl: ovgār] n. friend

    jīl n. scribe

    mehān n. baker

    mīht n. brother

    miz n. father

    mō [pl: ovmā] n. person

    myen n. mother

    nīr n. woman

    ōm [reg. pl.: opōm] n. sister

    ōp  [pl: opāp] n. country-dweller

    ōz  [pl: opāz] n. city-dweller

    ūbach n. throne

    yōj [pl: opyāj] prisoner

    zhēm n. neighbour

    zī n. uncle


    Religion

    dhē n. goddess 

    ebūn n. heretic

    elīz  n. temple

    lūzur n. religion

    neg n. god

    ovzōd n. (always plural) celebration, feast

    rünk n. prophet 

    zakīr n. priest

    zēka n. priestess

    zhīkur n. worship

    n. tradition


    Adjectives

    bīra a. brave

    dhūdin  a. holy

    dhūz a. white

    +garv a. old

    gēsun a. powerful

    gēsus a. nearby

    hī a. blue

    hīgun a. hostile

    hīz a. great, large

    mel a. shining

    nefan a. red

    nemūz a. brown

    oig a. black

    rülz a. foreign

    üb a. green

    ulzū a. cold

    üm a. yellow

    ūv a. happy

    vējis a. chilly

     

    Parts of the body, human functions

    dūn n. hand

    edzan  n. penis

    mev n. mouth

    ulzi n. word

    vēpur n. strength

    yechan n. arm

    Animals

    ābaz n. fish

    byer n. goat

    hiu n. rabbit

    hōr [pl: ofhār] n. sheep

    hwē n. mouse

    ik n. cat

    jēj n. flea

    lī n. bird

    moi n. worm

    nēlap n. domestic animal

    nerru n. horse

    oi n. snake

    rī n. fox

    shoi n. dog

    n. ox 

    zethan n. pig

    Weather, the Sky and Landscape

    eflu n. rain

    eg n. wind

    īy n. snow

    +kād n. way, road, path

    kīn n. star

    les n. land, earth

    melan n. ice

    tōl [pl: oftāl] n. moon

    zem n. sun

    zī  n. star

     

    Adverbs and particles

    dhel conj. but

    geb adv. last year

    hul interr/conj. when

    ō interj. oh

    sheb adv. thus

    un conj. and

    Prepositions

    ē prep. of

    ed (et before voiceless consonants)  prep. with, using

    ēga prep. against

    el prep. without

    he prep. out of

    il prep. to, toward

    ilnu prep. before, in front of

      prep. in, inside

    pin prep. with (comitative)

    uv (uf before voiceless consonants)  prep. on, upon

    wen prep. made of

      prep. as, like, equally to

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