Yād [ja:d] is a descendant of the Æðadĕ
language, which just like Ayasth and Aθáta, is itself a descendant of the earlier Adāta language
developed by Deiniol Jones (aka Dewrad). It was created for the "Derivation
Relay" in September 2006 on the zompist board by Gábor Sándi (aka gsandi).
Here follows the consonant inventory:
||k ɡ |
The voiceless plosives are usually pronounced with aspiration except in final
position, after a fricative or after another plosive.
The vowel inventory is as follows:
||u uː |
||o oː |
Unless noted below, phonemes are transliterated with the letter that
corresponds to their IPA value.
/tʃ dʒ/ are written <ch j>.
/θ ð/ are written <th dh>.
/ʃ ʒ/ are written <sh zh>.
/ɲ/ is written <ñ>.
/ʎ/ is written <ly>, except before <i>
where it is simply written <l>.
/j/ is written <y>.
/h/ is written <h> in all cases, including
after consonants. Should it be necessary to write this phoneme after <t d s z>, an apostrophy will be used, e.g.: t'h,
Long vowels are written with a macron: <ī
ē ā ō ū>. But no macron is needed for /ø:/ and
/y:/, which are written <ö> and <ü>, respectively.
Except under the section "Sound changes"
immediately below, all Yād forms are given
in standard transliteration.
Sound Changes from Adāta to Æðadĕ
- i > j / _V: iarioba > jarjoba, hānedia > hānedja
- a, e > ə / unstressed: abesa > abəsə, lōzera > lōzərə
- b, d, g > β, ð, ɣ: jabə > jaβə, Adātə > Aðātə, gamun > ɣamun
- ə > nil / following or preceding a stressed syllable and always
wordfinal, but never initial or after another vowel or halfvowel: aβən >
aβn, ēəβ > ēəβ; Exception: pəpō, zəzāk, hápəβ and, curiously, Aðātə remain
- Two geminate consonants following each other are simplified to one: azz
- ls > lz: lsō > lzō
- n, l, r > ṇ, ḷ, ṛ / final and preceded by a consonant: aln > alṇ,
khīrl > khīrḷ, lōzr > lōzṛ
- p(h), t(h), k(h) > ɸ, þ, x / _C (but not if preceding /j/): áplo >
áɸlo, záthṇ > záþṇ
- regressive assimilation: áβs > áɸs, ásð > ázð, átzən > ádzən,
ðiézk > ðiésk
- ai, ei, oi, au, eu > aj, ej, oj, aw, ew: eul > ewl, dei > dej
- á, é, í, ó, ú > ǽ, ié, í, ú, ué: Ádātə > Ǽðātə
- ué, ié > wé, jé
- Stress shifts to initial syllable
- ə > a / stressed: əpjāp > apjāp
- p, t, k > b, d, g / initial, V_V or final after a vowel: ǽk > ǽg
- Unstressed long vowels are shortened: abjāb > abjab
- lz > ḷz / wordinitial: lzō > ḷzō
- ɣ > h / initial: ɣǽmun > hǽmun
- ɣ > x: zūlɣ > zūlx
Sound Changes from Æðadĕ to Yād
1. Stressed short vowels: ǽ and é merge as phonemic
/e/ = [ɛ];
phonetic [ɔ] remains but is best analyzed as phonemic /o/; phonemic
/i/ and /u/ remain and are phonetic [ɪ] and
[ʊ]; phonemic /a/ is retained as such.
2. Stressed long vowels show
a vowel shift: ā > ō, ē > ī, ī > oi, ō > ū, ū > ü
(always long). But long ī remains as such in closed syllables and does not
diphthongize to oi.
3. Short diphthongs and triphthongs (i.e. short vowels +
/j/, /w/) develop as follows: aj, æj >
ē, jej > (j)ē, oj > oi, uj > y; aw > au,
æw > ø
(always long); jew > (j)ø ( /j/ is retained only when it does
not palatalize a preceding consonant). The diphthong we usually, but not
always, becomes ø.
4. Long diphthongs develop as
expected from the corresponding long vowel, with shortening before the glide:
āi > oi, ēi > ī; ōi > ui; āu > ou; ēu > iu.
5. Short vowels, whether or not stressed, become long in
the last open syllable of the word. This change happened after the changes
outlined above but before the dropping of weak unstressed vowels (as given in
6.). When the change applies to [ə], it becomes ā: wephonĕphĕna > wepnāpa
6. Widespread weakening of short vowels in unstressed syllables: basically,
a > [ə] is retained in word-final position, but is dropped unless
necessary for pronouncing otherwise difficult consonant clusters. Other vowels
are dropped finally (unless needed for support), internally front short vowels reduce to
/i/ and all back
short vowels reduce to /u/. Since [a] and [ə] are in complementary
distribution, they are best considered as allophones of the phoneme /a/.
Syllabic /m n/ add an /a/ before them; syllabic /l r/ add
7. Initial, post-consonantal and final consonants: there is
no need to show aspiration of voiceless stops, as aspiration (as in English) is
automatic except after certain other consonants (when it is predictably absent).
Thus we can write phonemically: /p t k/. β > v; ɸ > f; x > h. Palatalization:
before /j/ and (original) /i/ and /i:/, dental and velar consonants become palatalized:
k, t > tʃ;
g, d > dʒ; s > ʃ; z > ʒ; n > ɲ; l > ʎ.
ð is deleted. The resulting vowel clusters are resolved as best as
can be (e.g.: Æðadĕ > Yād)
9. The phone [x] is generally preserved intervocally
and before voiceless consonants, but as it is in
complementary distribution with the phone [h], it is best assigned to the same
phoneme /h/. However, [x] either becomes [g] before voiced consonants
or it is lost as in Kāxd > Kōd. In
final position, [x] is normally lost, with compensatory lengthening of the
preceding vowel: æx > ē
10. /w/ is deleted after labial consonants (e.g. vwe >
ve four); /j/ is deleted after palatals.
11. Some consonant clusters are simplified. E.g.: lr > rr: nælror > nerru
12. Word-final -r in nouns and adjectives tends to be deleted, because it is
identified with the eragtive suffix -(u)r. Example: nælror > nerru
13. The initial cluster ḷz > ulz. E.g.: ḷze > ulzi word.
The Plural is formed by the prefix op-, which becomes ov- before voiced
occlusives or fricatives and of-
before voiceless stops and fricatives, as well as before laterals and nasals. Additionally, long
vowels are shortened because stress shifts to the initial syllable. Remember
also that aspirated initial consonants are spoken without aspiration as soon as
the prefix is added.
The vowel alternation ō / ā is
quite frequent in the pluralization of monosyllabic nouns with internal
ō. But it is not universal: ōm
sister, opōm sisters.
Pluralisation is not required if the noun is accompanied by numerals, or by
indefinite adjectives such as
iz every or nem some.
- tōl moon, oftāl moons
- yōj prisoner,
- dhyesk king, ovdhyesk kings, but: iz dhyesk
- ithk mistress, opithk mistresses
Yād retains the marking of possession with suffixes. There has been an
analogical restructuring of the actual endings:
Word-final -i and -u (in diphthongs generally) change to -y- and
these suffixes. Word-final -a is replaced by the possessive endings (thus
there is no way to distinguish between "my king" and "my queen", both are
- dhyesk king, dhyeskēg our king
- ithk mistress, ithkē my mistress
- iu nobleman, iwau your noble man
- aūna girl, aūnā his girl , aunēg
Short stem vowels in words ending with a single consonants are lengthened
before the possessive endings:
- miz father, mīzā his/her father
2nd person plural forms are used to express respect: dhyeskaug your
king/queen (e.g. when talking to an ambassador).
Adjectives follow the noun they describe (dhyeskē bīra my brave
king), but they do not agree with it in number (ovdhyeskē bīra my brave
kings). The comparative is formed by suffixing -niz (or -iz
if the adjective ends in -n), the superlative by suffixing
-yal (which may induce palatalization). Word-final -a is dropped
before the comparative and superlative endings unless an unpronounceable cluster
- bīra, bīrniz, bīryal - brave, braver,
- tīrn, tīrniz, tīrñal - beautiful, more
beautiful, most beautiful
- dhūdin, dhūdiniz, dhūdiñal - holy, holier,
- ūv, ūvniz, ūvyal - happy, happier,
For emphasis it is also possible to add yel very in front of
the Superlative. But yel cannot be used before the
Example: dhyesk (yel) bīryal the bravest king.
There are some common adjectival prefixes:
e- (en- before vowels)[from the negative prefix ṇ- / æ-]:
un- . E.g.: ebīra cowardly, edhūdin unholy,
ēg [from the preposition ēga]:
counter-, opposite. E.g.: ēgbīra brave in a
different way, ēgūv happy in a
Ergative (subject) marker -ur
The ergative marker suffix -ur/r is suffixed to the last part of the
noun phrase when it is the subject of a transitive verb. It is important to
realize that this suffix is added before an appositional noun or a relative
phrase is applied. By analogy, it has also been introduced into negative
sentences (when there is a direct object).
The ending -ur is added to consonants and long vowels. After short
vowels, only -r is added.
- dhyesk king, dhyeskur king [erg.]
dhyeska queen, dhyeskar queen [erg.]
my mistress, ithkēur my mistress [erg.]
- aūnau yel tīrñalur your most beautiful girl
- Shenkanur, dhyesk hīz
Shenkan, the great king [erg.]
- An abēnsh ithk. (not cry-PRES mistress = The mistress is not crying).
rūlsh ithkur aūna. (not love-PRES mistress-ERG girl = The mistress
does not love the girl)
Adverbs can be formed synthetically by prefixing an adjective with kā(d)-
(derived from kād 'road,
kābīra bravely, kādūv
Adverbs precede the verb they modify and are not marked otherwise:
- Ye kādūv nun I went
As opposed to:
- Ye, ūv, nun I, the happy one, went
Demonstratives and Quantifiers
Yād has maintained Æðadĕ's two-way deixis:
- zī Pl. zōg - this, these
- she Pl. sheg - that, those
Here follows a list of Quantifiers:
- nem some
- iz all
- ur every, each
Both Demonstratives and Quantifiers precede the noun they modify; if the noun
is preceded by a demonstrative or quantifier, the plural prefix op- is always omitted.
- zōg dhyesk these kings
- nem aūna some girls
The word for thousand is sün.
The long vowel in rū ten is by analogy with the words for 3 and
5. zūzū three has reduplication to avoid confusion with
There has been extensive remodelling in the ordinal and decimal series.
Like in Finnish or Vulgar Latin, the numeral 1 may indicate indefinity:
dhyesk ji a king, some king. As can be seen from the example,
numerals follow the noun they modify. Numerals do not take the plural: aūna is
Higher numbers are combined with un and after the first named
counter, but no connector after.
- 15: rū un dhū
- 32: zūzūrū un ye
- 86: hwedhrū un is
- 152: yēp un dhūrū ye
- 2006: ye sün un is
Only the 2nd person vocatives have survived.
Personal pronouns are not normally used for 3rd person inanimate referents
(except in personification, e.g. in poetry). Normally, the demonstrative
she it, sheg they are used:
She sōdsh It's beginning.
Yēr uhchīksh sheg il dhon. I
will throw them (inanimate) to you.
2nd person plural forma are used to express respect: Dhog, dhyeskē
... You, my king...
Yād has kept the Æðadĕ verbal system relatively faithfully. Nevertheless,
there has been quite extensive regularization. The singular and plural are only
distinguished in the Past tense.
||Opt. Imperfective |
Verbs are usually given in the Indicative Present Pl, which is the least
inflected form. E.g. ēv say, zhēma live,
(+) VN = Verbal noun
The Æðadĕ imperative prefix ī- has been lost in Yād: the imperative is now
the verbal root, in both the singular and the plural. On the other hand, the
singular ending has been extended to the plural in all tenses except the past.
The future obligative has been re-formed on the basis of the present and the
past of the same - by prefixing the indicative forms with s(o)-.
Verb Stems & Ending Varieties
The verbal stem is considered to be that part of the verbal root from
which the final -a (if there is one) has been dropped. Thus the stem of ēv
say is ēv-; the stem of zhēma live is zhēm-
Past verbal forms in verbs ending in a consonant add -in (sing.) and
-iv (pl.); those ending in a vowel add -n and -v: (so ēv, ēvin,
ēviv say; zhēma,
zhēman, zhēmav live.). However, some verbs ending in a
consonant add -an and -av, so that it is customary in dictionaries
to always provide the past singular form: myezāg, myezāgan
celebrate (from Æðadĕ mjezagon).
In the present, the ending -sh is added to the verbal stem. The final consonant of the verbal stem becomes devoiced (if it can be) before
the present ending -sh: hēva, hēfsh drink ; jīga, jīksh
throw. If the final consonant of the stem is th, s, sh, ch, dh, z, zh
or j, however, a connecting vowel -a- is inserted before the -sh
The prefix uk of the Optative and Future Indicative only remain in front
of h (ukhēfsh will drink). If the stem begins with a vowel,
m, n, l or r, or any other voiced consonant, it becomes ug: ugēfsh will say,
ugnūnsh, will go; ugzhēmsh
will live. If
the stem of the verb begins with a voiceless consonant, it becomes uh:
uhtōlag will shine. For what
happens when the stem begins with a voiced plosive, see below under
Devoicing of initial voiced plosives.
The Obligative prefix so is shortened to s in front of vowels, half-vowels
and p, f, t and k: sēfsh has to say, stōlaksh
has to shine. When the verbal stem begins with b, d or g, see below
under Devoicing of initial voiced plosives.
The Verbal Noun can be formed by omitting the last vowel of the Present
Plural and adding -in (which will palatalize the final consonant of
the root if it can: rēt hear, rechin hearing).
Generally speaking, but not always, a long vowel in the stem will be shortened in the verbal
noun. It is customary in dictionaries to provide the verbal noun as the third
form: hēva, hēvan, hevin.
Devoicing of initial voiced plosives
Verbs beginning with a voiced plosive consonant (b, d, j, g) have two stems: they change this first voiced consonant into a voiceless consonant
after the prefix uh-
- bilēza send, uhpilēzash will send
- jī pull, uhchīsh will pull
- jīga throw, uhchīksh will throw
- gōra befriend, uhkōrsh will befriend
The obligative prefix s- has a similar effect on verbs:
- spilēzash has to send
- schīsh has to pull
- schīksh has to throw
- skōrsh has to befriend
There are a few irregular verbs whose full inflection will be given now (they
are ēt be (temporary), ē be (permanent), dü drink
abēna cry, nūna go,
Note the analogical vowel changes, e.g. in in, was.
This is a defective verb, missing optative and obligative forms.
Where Yād distinguishes between the singular and plural of verbs, the plural
is used only with truly plural subjects. Nouns accompanied by numerals and
certain indefinities (like
iz every or nem some) do not take the plural form of
Aūna is nun il Kōd.
Six girls went to Kōd.
The Yād negative particle an is a direct descendant of the Æðadĕ form ṇ.
The alternative form æ has disapperaed without a trace (it survives as a
negative adjectival prefix e-, however).
Example of use: An abēnsh ithk. (not cry-PRES mistress = The mistress is not crying).
Noun phrases consist of a noun that can be modified by adjectives,
appositions and genitives. The order is usually Determiner - Noun - Adjective -
Genitive - Apposition.
Example: Iz dhīp yel bīryal(ur) eh Kōd ovdhyesk
- all child very bravest of Kōd PL-king powerful
- all the bravest children of Kōd, the powerful kings
The Indicative is used for reality (dho
hēfsh you are
drinking), the Imperative for command (hēva drink!),
the Optative for wishes (dho ukhēfsh you want to drink)
and the Obligative for have-to or must constructions (dho sohēfsh
you have to drink).
The Verbal Noun is used in relative clauses.
The difference between ēt and ē
ēt is used for temporary states, wherease ē is used for
permanent statements. For fairly evident semantic reasons, the latter cannot
occur in optative or obligative constructions.
- Dho shi zīlul. You are here. (right
- Dho shi nī dusē. You
are (right now) in my house.
- Dho ēsh nī
dusē. You are (permanently) in my house.
- Dho ēsh mīzē. You are my father. (permanent)
- E shi garv. He/She is old (or, rather, right now she
- E ēsh garv. He/She is old (this is his/her
Relative clauses follow the noun they modify. If the person acting in the
relative clause is the same as the one it refers to, it takes the normal
pronoun; if it is the object of the action in the relative clause, one has to
use the oblique form.
Then one needs a relative timeword (yö for contemporarity with the
main sentence, öz for something that happened prior to the main
sentence), then the Verbal Noun and finally, depending on which pronoun (normal
or oblique) was used before, the Subject or Object of the Verbal Noun.
The Verbal Noun of to be usually is omitted, leaving only the relative
Yēr rūlan aūna
en yö hochin ye.
I-ERG love-PAST-SING girl she-OBL REL-CONTEMP rape-VN I
I loved the girl I married.
An rūlsh opaūna
ōn egru öz edalin ōn.
not love-PRES PL-girl they-OBL they REL-PAST rape-VN they-OBL
Girls do not love those who raped them.
A new passive voice has arisen, using the appropriate form of the verb ēt
(to be [temporary]), or - rarely - ē (to be [permanent] followed by the
Verbal Noun. If an ergative form is added at the end, it expresses the agent.
Ye shi hupin.
I am defeated.
Ye in hupin.
I was defeated.
Ye in hupin dhyeskur.
I was defeated by the King.
The usual word order is S-V-O, as can be seen in the following example:
- Yēr hūpin ōn.
I-ERG defeat-PAST they-OBL
I defeated them.
Negative sentences, have the negative particle followed by V-S-O order:
not defeat-PAST I-ERG they-OBL
- An hūpin yēr ōn.
I didn't defeat them.
The S-V-O word order is changed to V-O-S if the Subject is followed by
appositional nouns or a relative clause:
- Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz.
speak-PAST thus Shenkan, king great
Thus spoke Shenkan, the great king.
- Wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal gēsusur
egru öz babezhin il yen yö dhīp.
belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-SUBJ they-ERG REL-PAST name-PARTICIPLE to
I-OBL like child.
The nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.
Adpositional phrases are sorted manner - place - time. Other
combinations are possible, but rarely used. Example:
Ye nun ed nerru il Ñedz geb.
I-SUB go-PAST by horse to Ñedz last-year.
Last year I went to Ñedz by horse.
- Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz,
les ē Kōd, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl:
- Ilnu ye ēbin uv ūbach ē
mīzē, iz dhyeskal rülz in hīgun il yen. Ovdhyeskal rülz gēsus
ēviv sheb: "Mīzā ēn dhyesk bīra". Ēr hūpin ovdhyeskal ēgar. Un e
den yö neg. Dhel ēsh
yö dhīp e yö
ebin uv ūbach ē mīzā.
- Hul ye ēbin uv ūbach
mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl, ilnu ye nun il ovdhyeskal rülz eg öz
hīgun il yen, ye kādūv nun il ovzōd
ē Ūpē. Yēr myezāgan sheg un
hebēvan dūnē il myen mel.
Ye ēvin sheb: "Ō, Ithkē,
ō kīn ē ovzī, wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal
gēsusur egru öz bābizhin
il yen yö dhīp. Un egru sōdiv beshin ovgāls
ē lēsaug dhūdin, ō Ithkē! Kādedhūdin enzēba!
Ūpēur rētan opulzi ē mēvē. Ēr wēlan yen un sēpin vēpur il
Yēr hūpin ed ladh rū ōn
eg öz mujin ēg yen.Yēr hūpin ōn. Yēr evjan opyāj
un ovvü un ofhār un yēr bilēzan ōn il les ē Kōd.
Sinakan, the great king, the king of the land of Kāxad, brother of the sun
and the moon, spoke thus:
Before I sat on the throne of my father, alas! all the foreign countries
were hostile towards me. The nearby foreign countries spoke thus: "His father
was a brave king. Alas! he conquered many enemy countries. And he became a god.
But luckily, he who sits on the throne of his father is a child."
When I, brother of the sun and moon, sat on the throne of my father,
before I went to the foreign countries which were being hostile towards me,
happily I went to the feasts of Ophai. I celebrated them to my benefit, and I
rose my hand to the shining mother. I spoke thus: "My mistress, light of the
stars, the nearby countries who name me a child belittle me. And they begin to
attack the border of your holy land, my mistress! Strike the heathens down!"
Ophai heard the words of my mouth. She rose me up and she gave strength to
my arm. I conquered those who rose against me in ten years. I conquered them. I
captured many prisoners, oxen and sheep, and I sent them back to the land of
- Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz,
les ē Kōd, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl
- Ævi-n sjeb Sjenkĕn-ro, ðjesk xizor, ðjesk æx læs æx Kāxd, mēxt æx Zæm un
- speak-PAST thus Shenkan, King great, King of Land of Kaxd, brother of
sun and of moon:
- Sjenken, the great King, the King of the Land Kaxd, the brother of the Sun
and of the Moon spoke thus:
- Comment: Note the absence of (ergative) subject marking, because the verb is not
- Ilnu ye ēbin uv ūbach ē
mīzē, iz dhyeskal rülz in hīgun il yen.
- īlnu je-ro æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj, iz ðjeskĕlĕs rūlzro vi hēgon īl
- before I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, all kingdom foreign
be-PAST hostile to I-OBL.
- Before I sat on the throne of my father, all foreign kingdoms were hostile
- Comment: the verb in is in the singular, because the subject is
accompanied by iz 'all'.
- Ovdhyeskal rülz gēsus
ēviv sheb: "Mīzā ēn dhyesk bīra"
- Ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz gæsus-ro ævi-v sjeb, "Miz-ag-ro æn ðjesk bira.
- PL-kingdom foreign nearby speak-PAST thus: "Father-his be-PAST
- Foreign near kingdom spoke thus: "His father was a brave king.
- Ēr hūpin ovdhyeskal ēgar. Un e
den yö neg.
- Æ-ro huphi-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs ægarĕn. Un æ-ro dæ-n jwe næg.
- he-ERG defeat-PAST PL-kingdom enemy. and he-SUB become-PAST like god.
- He defeated enemy kingdoms and he became just like a god.
- Comment: A good illustration of the difference between ergative and
- Dhel ēsh
yö dhīp e yö
ebin uv ūbach ē mīzā.
- Ðæl æ-th jwe ðiphi æ-ro æ jwe æb-jĕn uv ōbagatjĕ æx mizag.
- but be-PRES like child he-SUB he REL-PRES sit-VN on throne of father-his.
- But like a child is he who now sits on the throne of his father.
- Comment: note the replacement of the verb form æ-th by the
- Hul ye ēbin uv ūbach
mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl,
- Hul æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj je-ro, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Thālo,
- when I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, brother of sun and of moon,
- When I, brother of the Sun and of the Moon, sat on the throne of my
- Comment: One of the few cases where Yād
syntax is different from Æðadĕ syntax: the sunject of the sentence
shifts to the front, just after the word hul.
- ilnu ye nun il ovdhyeskal rülz eg öz
hīgun il yen,
- īlnu je-ro nun æth ov-ðjeskĕlĕs rūlz æg wez hēgon īl je-n,
- before I-SUB go-PAST to PL-kingdom foreign they REL-PAST hostile to I-OBL,
- before I went to the foreign kingdoms that were hostile to me,
- Comment: æth was replaced by the more common preposition for to:
- ye kādūv nun il ovzōd
- je-ro ōvo nun īl ov-zādi æx Uphaj.
- I-SUB happy-ADV go-PAST to PL-feast of Ūpē.
I happily went to the feast of Ūpē.
- Comment: note the Yād innovation of the
kād- adverb formation.
- Yēr myezāgan sheg un
hebēvan dūnē il myen mel.
- Je-ro mjezago-n ā-n un je-ro hæbĕvĕ-n dun-aj īl mjen mæl.
- I-ERG celebrate-PAST they-OBL and I-SUB lift-PAST hand-my to mother
- I celebrated them and rose my hand to the shining mother.
- Comment: Note the use of sheg instead of the personal pronoun
ōn (inanimate object). Also, as there is
no change of subject between the two parts of the sentence, Yād
normally does not repeat the ergative yēr.
- Ye ēvin sheb: "Ō, Ithkē,
ō kīn ē ovzī,
- Je-ro ævi-n sjeb, "iþkj-aj æxin khēnu æx ov-ze,
- I-SUB speak-PAST thus: oh mistress-my oh light of PL-star,
- I spoke thus: "Oh my mistress light of the stars,
- wepnāpiv yen ovdhyeskal
gēsusur egru öz babezhin
il yen yö dhīp.
- wephonĕphĕnĕ-v je-n ov-ðjeskĕlĕs gæsus-ro æg wez babæz-jĕn īl je-n jwe
- belittle-PAST I-OBL PL-kingdom nearby-ERG they REL-PAST name-VN to I-OBL like
- the nearby kingdoms, who named me a child, belittle me.
- Un egru sōdiv beshin ovgāls
ē lēsaug dhūdin, ō Ithkē!
- Un æx-ro sād-v bæs-jĕn æx ov-galĕs æx læs-aðo ðōdin, iþkj-aj æxin!
- and they-ERG begin-PAST attack-VN PL-border of land-your holy,
- And they begin to attack the borders of your holy land, o my mistress!
- Comment: Note thatYād does
not use the genitive construction for "attack of a border"; also, the plural
possessive is used for "your land", as befits the land of someone deserving a
lot of respect.
- Kādedhūdin enzēba!
Ūpēur rētan opulzi ē mēvē.
- æðodin ī-enzĕb!" Uphaj-ro rætho-n ov-ḷze æx mæv-aj.
- ADV-unholy IMP-strike. Ūpē-ERG hear-PAST PL-word of mouth-my.
- Strike unholy! Uphi heard the words of my mouth.
- Comment: Note the Yād innovation of the
kād- adverb, the imperative based on the
verbal root, and the analogical re-formation of the op- plural before a
secondary vowel in ulzi .
- Ēr wēlan yen un sēpin vēpur il
- Æ-ro wel-ṇ je-n un æ-ro sæphi-n væphor īl jetjĕn-aj.
- she-ERG rise-PAST I-OBL and give-PAST strength to arm-my.
- She rose me up and gave strength to my arm.
- Yēr hūpin ed ladh rū ōn
eg öz mujin ēg yen.
- Je-ro huphi-n æd lað ru ā-n æg wez mug-jĕn æga je-n.
- I-ERG defeat-PAST with year ten they-OBL they PAST protest against I-OBL.
- I defeated within ten years those who protested against me.
- Yēr hūpin ōn.
- Je-ro huphi-n ā-n.
- I-ERG defeat-PAST they-OBL.
- I defeated them.
- Yēr evjan opyāj un ovvü un
ofhār un yēr bilēzan ōn il les ē Kōd.
- Je-ro ævujĕ-n oph-jadi un ov-vu un of-xar un je-ro bilæz-ṇ ā-n īl læs æx
- I-ERG catch-PAST PL-prisoner and PL-ox and PL-sheep and I-ERG send-PAST
they-OBL to land of Kōd.
- I caught prisoners and oxen and sheep and sent them to the land of Kōd.
- Comment: Yēr is repeated here because of the number of direct
objects following the first verb.
Words denoted with a cross (+) were introduced into the vocabulary by gsandi.
Verbs are listed with three forms: the root (infinitive), the past indicative
singular and the verbal noun.
ābiñin v.irr. cry
abēza, abēzan, abejin v. make
babezhin v. name
bēs, bēsan, beshin v. attack
bilēza, bilēzan, bilezhin v. send v. send
chiin v. have sex, make love
de, den, din v.irr. become
dü, dwen, dwin v.irr. drink
ē, ēn [no verbal noun] v.irr. be
ēb, ēbin, ebin v. sit
edalin v. rape
enzebin v. strike
ēt, in v.irr. be
ēv, ēn, evin v. say
evja, evjan, evjin v. catch
+gōra, gōran, gorin v. befriend
hebevin v. lift
hevin v. drink
huchin v. stroke [also, slang: masturbate]
hupin v. defeat
+hōta, hōtan, hochin v. marry
īb, ībin, ibin v. freeze
jī, jīn, jin v. pull
jīga, jīgan, jijin v. throw
melya, melyan, melin v. suck
mujin v. protest
myezajin v. celebrate (a religious feast)
nūna, nun, nuñin v.irr. go
nushin v. die
rechin v. hear
rūla, rūlan, rulin
sepin v. give
sōjin v. begin
tēva, tēvan, tevin v. sin
[unexplained t-, but clearly introduced to differentiate from ēv-
tōlag, tōlgan, toljin v. shine (like the moon)
ūlōkan, ūlochin v. forget
vnezhin v. pray
welin v. rise
wepnapin v. belittle
People, Family & Society
aūna n. girl
dhīp n. child
dhyesk n. king
dhyeska n. queen
dhyeskal n. kingdom
+dus n. house
ēgar n. enemy
ev n. man
ithk n. mistress, lady
iu n. nobleman
gāls n. border
[pl: ovgār] n. friend
jīl n. scribe
mehān n. baker
mīht n. brother
miz n. father
[pl: ovmā] n. person
myen n. mother
nīr n. woman
ōm [reg. pl.: opōm] n. sister
ōp [pl: opāp] n. country-dweller
ōz [pl: opāz] n.
ūbach n. throne
yōj [pl: opyāj]
zhēm n. neighbour
zī n. uncle
dhē n. goddess
ebūn n. heretic
elīz n. temple
lūzur n. religion
neg n. god
ovzōd n. (always plural)
rünk n. prophet
zakīr n. priest
zēka n. priestess
zhīkur n. worship
zü n. tradition
bīra a. brave
dhūdin a. holy
dhūz a. white
+garv a. old
gēsun a. powerful
gēsus a. nearby
hī a. blue
hīgun a. hostile
hīz a. great, large
mel a. shining
nefan a. red
nemūz a. brown
oig a. black
rülz a. foreign
üb a. green
ulzū a. cold
üm a. yellow
ūv a. happy
vējis a. chilly
Parts of the body, human functions
dūn n. hand
edzan n. penis
mev n. mouth
ulzi n. word
vēpur n. strength
yechan n. arm
ābaz n. fish
byer n. goat
hiu n. rabbit
hōr [pl: ofhār] n. sheep
hwē n. mouse
ik n. cat
jēj n. flea
lī n. bird
moi n. worm
nēlap n. domestic animal
nerru n. horse
oi n. snake
rī n. fox
shoi n. dog
vü n. ox
zethan n. pig
Weather, the Sky and Landscape
eflu n. rain
eg n. wind
īy n. snow
+kād n. way, road, path
kīn n. star
les n. land, earth
melan n. ice
tōl [pl: oftāl] n. moon
zem n. sun
zī n. star
Adverbs and particles
dhel conj. but
geb adv. last year
hul interr/conj. when
ō interj. oh
sheb adv. thus
un conj. and
ē prep. of
ed (et before voiceless consonants) prep. with, using
ēga prep. against
el prep. without
he prep. out of
il prep. to, toward
ilnu prep. before, in front of
nī prep. in, inside
pin prep. with (comitative)
uv (uf before voiceless consonants) prep. on, upon
wen prep. made of
yö prep. as, like, equally to