Tundrian verbs present a complexity far beyond that seen in the nouns and adjectives of the language. For the simple finite forms, there are distinctions made for two numbers (singular and plural), three persons (1st, 2nd and 3rd), five tenses (present, imperfect, preterite, pluperfect and future) and four moods (indicative, subjunctive, conditional and imperative). In addition there are the non-finite forms of the infinitive and the past and present participle. Finally, there are compound tenses combining auxiliary verbs and the past participle.
The basic form of a verb is called its root - this is what the endings are added to. Normally, different finite forms of verbs are distinguished by the use of different endings. However, in many irregular verbs the root may also change in specific forms. In two common irregular verbs (esseir 'to be' and eular 'to go') there are examples of suppletion: different roots are used for different forms.
REGULAR CONJUGATION CLASSES
There are three conjugations, defined by whether the infinitive ends in -ar (Class I), -eir (Class II) or -iyr (Class III). Class III is further subdivided into two subclasses (IIIa and IIIb), depending on whether the verbs have an extension in -isc- in some forms or not.
All simple forms of sample verbs illustrating the four conjugation classes are given below. For all finite forms within a paradigm, the order is as follows: 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular, 1st, 2nd and 3rd person plural. All endings are in red.
|Meaning||to sing||to fall||to lie||to finish|
|Past Participle||cantat, -a||cadut, -a||mentiyt, -a||finiyt, -a|
- For the 2nd person sing. and plural of the Preterite Indicative, two forms are given for all verbs. The first is more common in literature and very formal style, while the second is more common in everyday usage.
- The Pluperfect Indicative also has subjunctive uses, explained elsewhere. In fact, in everyday usage it is only these subjunctive uses that are common - otherwise the pluperfect is replaced by the Past Perfect.
- The Imperative is only used in the 2nd person singular and the 1st and 2nd person plural. The 1st person plural forms are identical to the corresponding Present Subjunctive forms.
MAIN AUXILIARY VERBS
Three auxiliary verbs are so important, and show so many irregularities, that their full conjugation is given below. Note that esseir and eular exhibit suppletion (they involve several different roots).
|Meaning||to be||to have||to go|
|Past Participle||fut, -a||havut, -a||eulat, -a|
Where two parallel sets are given for eular, the two are used with roughly equal frequency, and both are considered correct in the standard language.
For every form of the Tundrian verb (with the exception of the Imperative and the Past Participle), there is a corresponding compound form known as the perfect. The perfect forms are always made by the appropriate form of one of the auxiliary verbs esseir or haveir, followed by the past participle of the verb in question: hoy cantat (I have sung), êram vêniyti (we had come), havent passat (having passed).
The basic rules as to whether esseir or haveir should be used are as follows:
esseir is used with:
Most verbs of motion: arripar (arrive), ascendeir (go up), cadeir (fall), descendeir (descend, go down), eular (go), intrar (enter), partiyr (leave, depart), procedeir (proceed), retornar (return), revêniyr (come back), saliyr (go out), vêniyr (come). Examples: soy arripat (I have arrived), son caduti (they have fallen), yera saliyta (she had gone out).
Verbs of motion that emphasize the type of motion are conjugated with haveir: antar (walk), cûrreir (run), natar (swim), volar (fly): hoy cûrs, ha natat etc.
Verbs denoting a state or change of state: avêniyr (happen), cresceir (grow), dêcedeir (decede, die), devêniyr (become), discresceir (decrease), disparesceir (disappear), estar (stand, be standing), jaceir (lie down), maneir/remaneir (remain), moriyr (die), nasceir (be born), restar (stay), sûrgeir (surge), velhar (grow old), xedeir (sit). Examples: son cresçuti (they have grown), essent estat (having been standing), yeran morti (they had died), soy nat (I was born).
Verbs denoting appearance: apparesceir (appear), paresceir (seem), ximlar (seem). Examples: és apparesçuta (she has appeared), son ximlati (they have seemed).
Impersonal verbs related to a mental state: bastar (suffice), displaceir (displease), doleir (ache, cause pain), gûstar (please, like), placeir (please). Examples: és bastat (it has sufficed), mi és gûstat (I have liked it).
The verbs êixiyr (succeed) and intervêniyr (intervene): son êixiyti (they have succeeded), jo yera intervêniyt (I had intervened).
Pronominal verbs, of which there are a great many. Some commonly used ones are: abdicar-se (abdicate), absteneir-se (abstain), accordar-se (agree), batteir-se (fight), casar-se (marry), conflar-se (swell), crûllar-se (crash), deviar-se (lose one's way), dormiyr-se (fall aslep), empignar-se (commit oneself), errar-se (make a mistake), estar-se (stand up), eular-se (leave, go away), excusar-se (apologize), fastiar-se (get tired), fûndeir-se (melt), habituar-se (get used to), irritar-se (get angry), melhorar-se (get better, improve), mitteir-se (begin, get started), nhecar-se (drown), ostinar-se (be obstinate), palliyr-se (wither), perdeir-se (get lost), rapeir-se (hurry), rixar-se (riot), usar-se (wear out), versar-se (pour [intr.]), xamar-se (swarm), xiccar-se (dry [intr.]). Examples: se son accordati (they have agreed), se será conflat (it will have swollen), m'essent habituat (having got accustomed), s'és nhecata (she has drowned).
Pronominal verbs should not be confused with reflexive verbs, which may look identical to them in most situations, and which are conjugated with haveir, such as: arrestar-se (stop [intr.]), candzar-se (change oneself), interessar-se (interest oneself in), lavar-se (wash oneself), peynar-se (comb oneself), rasar-se (shave [intr.]), vestiyr-se (dress oneself), etc. Examples of perfect use: s'ha lavat (he has washed himself), vos havêis rasat(s)? (have you shaved?).
Some verbs may be conjugated either with esseir or haveir. This happens in two situations:
For some verbs, the choice depends entirely on whether the verb is used intransitively (conjugated with esseir) or transitively (conjugated with haveir). Such verbs are:
abordar (board): soy abordat soul (I have gone aboard alone); el capitán ha abordat lâ nâu soul (the captain has boarded the ship alone).
candzar (change): és candzat mûlt (he has changed much [about himself]); ha candzat mûlt (he has changed much [around himself]).
expirar (expire/breathe out): son expirati (they have expired, died); el dracoun ha expirat es ênormes flammas (the dragon has expired enormous flames).
fuîr (flee): son fuiti dâ lo payeiz (they have fled from the country); han fuit lour passat (they have fled their past).
passar (pass): és passata (she has passed [e.g. an exam]); ha passat lo exame (she has passed the exam).
saltar (jump; assail): son saltati en lo aer (they have jumped in the air); han saltat lâ vêitura postal (they have assailed the postal coach).
sonar (ring): el têlephôn és sonat (the phone has rung); il m'ha sonat hieri (he phoned me yesterday).
valeir (be worth): és valut (it has been worth it); ha valut dous meizes de mîa viyta, nón mais (it has been worth two months of my life, nothing more).
volveir (come back; wrap up): son volvuti (they have come back); han volvut los rêgals (they have wrapped the presents).
For some verbs used pronominally, usage fluctuates: they may be considered as purely pronominal (and therefore conjugate with esseir) or as reflexive (and therefore conjugate with haveir). Examples:
avantzar-se (advance): se son avantzati or s'han avantzats (they have advanced)
banhar-se (bathe): s'és banhata or s'ha banhata (she has bathed)
jûngeir-se (join): s'és jûnt a lâ associatzoun or s'ha jûnt a lâ associatzoun (he has joined the association)
lhevar-se (rise): el soul s'és lhevat or el soul s'ha lhevat (the sun has risen)
occûpar-se (busy oneself with): me soy occûpat con... or m'hoy occûpat a... [N.B. the different preposition used]
tornar-se (turn around): s'és tornata or s'ha tornata (she has turned around)
voltar-se (overturn): la nâu s'és voltata or la nâu s'ha voltata (the ship has overturned).
All other verbs (the great majority) are conjugated with haveir: hoy cantat (I have sung), ha dormiyt (he has slept), havîa fut (I/he/she/it had been).
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