This page is devoted to the irregularities of the first conjugation (-ar verbs).

The Tundrian-English dictionary provides forms for individual verbs from which irregular forms can be derived.

Present Indicative

Each pattern is illustrated by all six forms of the sample verb. Other verbs given as examples show only the infinitive and the 1st person singular. Letters in red show the irregularity and/or the stem vowel in the stressed syllable; letters in blue show the stem vowel in the unstressed syllable.

Highly irregular verbs (eular 'to go' was already dealt with on the general Verbs page):

  • dar (to give): doy, das, da, dam, dais, dan.
    • Note the ff. forms of the derived verb circondar (to surround): circondás, circondá, circondán
  • estar (to stand): estoy, estás, está, estam, estais, están.

Verbs with vowel alternation in the stem (unstressed/stressed vowels are different).

  • a / ai - amar (to love): aimo, aimas, aima, amam, amais, aiman.
    • This occurs in verbs ending in -amar / -anar, e.g.: clamar (to call): claimo; sanar (to heal): saino; etc.
  • e / ie - cecar (to blind): cieco, ciecas, cieca, cecam, cecais, ciecan.
    • Only one other verb: gelar (to freeze): gielo.
  • e / ye - errar (to wander): yerro, yerras, yerra, erram, errais, yerran.
    • Only one other verb: esmar (to guess): yesmo.
  • e / ei - pezar (to weigh): peizo, peizas, peiza, pezam, pezais, peizan.
    • This alternation occurs in about half of first conj. verbs with -e- in an open syllable,e.g.: anelar (to breathe): aneilo; celar (to hide): ceilo; cenar (to dine): ceino; esperar (to hope): espeiro; frenar (to brake): freino; penar (to punish, fine): peino; senar (to sow): seino; etc.
    • Other verbs of this type do not alternate the vowel (at least in spelling - in pronunciation, there is still an alternation between /ə/ and /e/). Examples: cremar (to burn): cremo; crepar (to burst): crepo; interpretar (to interpret): interpreto; lhevar (to lift, raise): lhevo; precar (to pray): preco; vetar (to prohibit): veto; etc. 
    • When the -e- is in a closed syllable, it never alternates. Examples: mendar (to patch): mendo; tormentar (to torment): tormento; tzentar (to try): tzento; etc.
  • ê / e  - prêjar (to preach): prejo, prejas, preja, prêjam, prêjais, prejan.
    • One other verb: mêjar (to dress a wound): mejo.
  • i / iy - arripar (to arrive): arriypo, arriypas, arriypa, arripam, arripais, arriypan.
    • The majority of verbs with root -i- in an open syllable belong here, e.g.: avricar (to shelter): avriyco; castigar (to punish): castiygo; critar (to shout): criyto; dêsirar (to desire): dêsiyro; filar (to spin, file): fiylo; guidar (to guide): guiydo; invitar (to invite): inviyto; mirar (to watch): miyro; pizar (to pound, crush): piyzo; suïcidar-se (to commit suicide): me suïciydo; tirar (to pull): tiyro; etc.
    • Quite a few verbs of this type do not alternate, however, e.g.: abdicar (to abdicate): abdico; citar (to quote): cito; fricar (to rub): frico; hûmiliar (to humiliate): hûmilio; plicar (to fold): plico; all verbs in -izar, e.g. bautizar (to baptize): bautizo; and some others.
    • Many learned verbs with -i- in an open stem-final syllable belong in a different category of irregular verbs, and never stress the -i-, e.g.: agitar (to agitate): ágito; êditar (to edit): édito; etc.
    • When the -i- is in a closed syllable, it never alternates. Examples: bindar (to bind): bindo; brillar (to shine): brillo; piccar (to sting): picco; etc.
  • o / ou - orar (to pray): ouro, ouras, oura, oram, orais, ouran.
    • This alternation occurs in about half of first conj. verbs with -o- in an open syllable,e.g.: adorar (to worship): adouro; colar (to flow): coulo; côronar (to crown): côrouno; emprijonar ( to imprison): emprijouno; espozar (to marry): espouzo; explorar (to explore): explouro; lavorar (to work, labour): lavouro; mentzonar (to mention): mentzouno; plorar (to weep): plouro; votar (to vote): vouto; etc.
      • It should be pointed out that this alternation, when it takes place in open syllables, is an orthographic alternation only, since in open syllables both unstressed <o> and stressed <ou> are pronounced /u/.
      • Other verbs of this type do not alternate the vowel (at least not in writing - in pronunciation, there is an alternation between /u/ and /o/). Examples: appodzar (to back, support): appodzo (phonemically /ɑpu'dzar/ - ɑ'podzu/); copiar (to copy): copio; forar (to drill): foro; jocar (to play): joco; locar (to hire): loco; pilotar (to pilot): piloto; provar (to prove, test): provo; sonar (to ring, sound): sono; volar (to fly): volo; etc.
      • In three verbs, the alternation o/ou occurs in closed syllables. These verbs are: emprontar (to borrow): emprounto; formar (to form): fourmo; mostrar (to show): moustro. This, of course, is a phonemic alternation as well, e.g. formar /fɔr'mar/ - fourmo / 'furmu/.
      • In all other cases, -o- in closed syllables does not alternate, e.g.: contar (to count): conto; encontrar (to meet): encontro; portar (to carry): porto; toccar (to touch): tocco; tornar (to turn): torno; etc.
      • In a few learned verbs, which belong in a different category of irregular verbs altogether, the -o- in an open stem-final syllable is never stressed, e.g.: calcolar (to calculate): câlcolo; circolar (to circulate): círcolo; isolar (to isolate): ísolo; pendolar (to hang): pêndolo; etc.
  • o / ó - sçontar (to joke): sçónto, sçóntas, sçónta, sçontam, sçontais, sçóntan.
    • The only verb in this category.

Verbs with proparoxytonic stem-stressed forms.

This class of verbs, normally of learned or semi-learned origin, stresses the third last (antepenultimate) syllable in those forms where regular 1st conjugation verbs stress the second-last (penultimate). Example:

  • agitar (to shake, excite, agitate): ágito, ágitas, ágita, agitam, agitais, ágitan.

The following is a list of possible patterns, with examples for each (only the infinitive and the 1st person singular forms are given):

  • a / á: animar (to animate): ánimo; imaginar (to imagine): imágino; navigar (to navigate): návigo.
  • a / â: calcolar (to calculate): câlcolo; practicar (to practice): prâctico; trafficar (to traffic): trâffico.
  • au / áu: inaugûrar (to inaugurate): ináugûro.
  • e / é: accelerar (to accelerate): accélero.
  • ê / é: crêditar (to credit): crédito; êditar (to edit): édito; mêritar (to merit): mérito.
  • e / ê: destinar (to address): dêstino; mendicar (to beg): mêndico; terminar (to terminate): têrmino.
  • i / í: certificar (to certify): certífico; dissipar (to squander, waste): díssipo; limitar (to limit): límito.
  • o / ó: dominar (to dominate): dómino; moderar (to moderate): módero; operar (to operate): ópero.
  • o / ô: accommodar (to accommodate): accômmodo; aproximar (to approximate): aprôximo; ostinar-se (to be obstinate): m'ôstino.
  • u / ú: illuminar (to illuminate): illúmino; publicar (to publish): público.

Some verbs with stem <-û-> also belong here, although the irregular stress cannot be shown due to the circumflex that is already on the <u>. Examples:

  • accûmolar (to accumulate): accûmolo; dispûlverar (to dust): dispûlvero; ressûscitar (to revive): ressûscito.

Verbs with stems ending in -i- (i.e. infinitive ending in -iar).

There are two subclasses, one with the -i- stressable (when stressed, this is spellled <î>), the other with the -i- not stressable (no irregular stress needs to be shown in spelling). Patterns and examples:

  • enviar (to send): envîo, envîas, envîa, enviam, enviais, envîan.
    • Examples: castiar (to chastize): castîo; criar (to bring up): crîo; niar (to deny): nîo.
  • copiar (to copy): copio, copias, copia, copiam, copiais, copian.
    • Examples: associar (to associate): associo; hûmiliar (to humiliate): hûmilio; pagiar (to page): pagio.

Verbs with stems ending in -u- (i.e. infinitive ending in -uar).

There are two subclasses, one with the -u- stressable (when stressed, this is spelled <ú>), the other with the -u- not stressable (no irregular stress needs to be shown). The second subclass is very small, and consists only of verbs with infinitives ending in -guar and -quar. It should be noted that the 1st person singular for this latter class ends in -go and -co, respectively. Patterns and examples:

  • continuar (to continue): continúo, continúas, continúa, continuam, continuais, continúan.
    • Examples: actuar (to activate): actúo; dêvaluar (to devaluate): dêvalúo; situar (to situate): sitúo.
  • triguar-se (to make a truce): me trigo, te triguas, se trigua, nos triguam, vos triguais, se triguan.
    • Also: averiguar (to average): averigo, averiguas etc.
  • xaquar (to rinse): xaco, xaquas, xaqua, xaquam, xaquais, xaquan.
    • No other examples.

Imperfect Indicative

There are no irregularities in this tense: all 1st conjugation verbs add the endings on to the stem:

  • cantar: cantava; continuar: continuava, etc.

Preterite Indicative

Irregular 1st conjugation verbs in this tense are the following:

  • dar (to give): dêi, desti / dés, dé, dem, destes / dêis, deron
    • Also: circondar (to surround): circondêi, etc.
  • estar (to stand): estêi, estés, esté, estem, estêis, esteron
    NB: For reasons of euphony, the theoretically possible 2nd person forms *estesti and *estestes are never used.

Other verbs are regular:

  • cantar: cantái; continuar: continuái, etc.

Pluperfect Indicative and Imperfect Subjunctive

All 1st conjugation verbs are predictable in the sense that the endings of these tenses are added on to the stem of the Preterite Indicative, formed from the 3rd person plural from which the -ron ending has been deleted. Examples:

  • Pluperfect Indicative: cantar (cantaron) - cantara; continuar (continuaron) - continuara; dar (deron) - dera; estar (esteron) - estera; etc.
  • Imperfect Subjunctive (for the same verbs): cantasse; continuasse; desse; estesse; etc.

Future Indicative and Conditional

The endings of these tenses are normally added on to the infinitive, and there are no irregularities in the 1st conjugation with the exception of eular (to go), which was already dealt with on the general Verbs page. Examples:

  • cantar: cantaroy / cantarîa; dar: daroy / darîa; etc.

Present Subjunctive

Highly irregular verbs

On the whole, the present subjunctive offers the same patterns as the present indicative. There are the usual highly irregular verbs (eular 'to go' was already dealt with on the general Verbs page):

  • dar (to give): dîa, dîas, dîa, diam, diais, dîan
    • Also: circondar (to surround): circondîa etc.
  • estar (to stand): estîa, estîas, estîa, estiam, estiais, estîan

Vocalic alternations

For other verbs, the same alternations occur as in the present indicative, and in the same persons. Examples:

  • pezar (to weigh): peize, peizes, peize, pezeim, pezêis, peizen
  • arripar (to arrive): arriype, etc.
  • agitar (to shake, excite): ágite, etc.
  • castiar (to chastize): castîe, etc.

Verbs with the a / ai alternation retain the -a- in the 2nd person singular. Thus the Pres. Subj. paradigm of amar (to love is):

  • aime, ams, aime, ameim, amêis, aimen

Supporting vowel

A special problem is that of the ending of the 2nd person singular. The regular ending is -s: cantar - cants. Nevertheless, a connecting vowel -e- is added before this ending in cases where the final cluster would be difficult or impossible to pronounce. The rules for the need for this connecting vowel are the same as for the accusative plural of class B nouns and adjectives. Examples:

  • -sar, -ssar, -zar: casar (to marry) - cases; passar (to pass) - passes; pezar (to weigh) - peizes; etc.
  • -xar: baixar ( to lower) - baixes; fixar (to set) - fixes; etc.
  • -tzar, -dzar, -çar, -giar; -jar: altzar (to raise) - altzes; candzar (to change) - candzes; lançar (to throw) - lances; refûgiar-se (to flee) - te refûges; bajar (to kiss) - bajes; etc.
  • -rrar: errar (to wander) - yerres; xerrar (to squeeze) - xerres; etc.
  • most consonant clusters + -ar: governar (to govern) - governes; raspar (to grate) - raspes; xûlcar (to furrow) - xûlques; captar (to pick up): captes; etc. [BUT: demandar (to ask) - demands; portar (to carry) - ports; etc]
  • -guar, -quar: triguar-se (to make a truce) - te trigües; xaquar (to rinse) - xaqües; etc.

Stems ending in a geminate consonant

Also affecting the 2nd person singular is the issue of stems ending in a geminate consonant <-cc->, <-nn>, etc. Before the -s ending, the geminate is reduced to a single written consonant, and the preceding vowel obtains a circumflex accent (if it does not already have one). Examples of patterns:

  • -ccar: claccar (to burst) - clâcs; peccar (to sin) - pêcs; piccar (to sting) - pîcs; etc.
  • -ffar: bûffar-si (to make fun of) - ti bûfs.
  • -llar: appellar (to call out) - appêls; collar (to stick) - côls; tzillar (to tease) - tzîls; etc.
  • -mmar: inflammar (to inflame) - inflâms; sûmmar (to sum up) - sûms.
  • -nnar: engannar (to deceive) - engâns; rennar (to rein) - rêns.
  • -ppar: escappar (to escape) - escâps; trippar (to hop) - trîps; etc.
  • -ttar: êtiquettar (to label) - êtiquêts; grattar (to scratch) - grâts; etc.

This rule does not apply to verbs with stems ending in -cçar, -rrar or -ssar, as they require a supporting vowel and thus can keep the geminate in the 2nd pers. singular, e.g.:

  • embraar (to hug), - embracces; xerrar (to squeeze) - xerres; passar (to pass) - passes; etc.

Stems with consonantal alternation

Finally, there are the verb stems ending in velar, palatal and labiovelar consonants. For such verbs, spelling changes according to whether the following vowel is a back (-a- or -o-) or a front (-e-) vowel. The actual pronunciation of the stem-final consonant never varies in first-conjugation verbs, which means that the spelling of these consonants must change. Examples of patterns (for all, the Infinitive and the Present Subjunctive 1st person form are given):

  • c / qu: aplicar (to apply) - aplique; marcar (to label) - marque; etc. Note, however: aplics, in the 2nd person sing., which has no connecting vowel, hence the -c- can be retained.
  • ç / c: calçar (to furnish) - calce; lançar (to throw) - lance; etc.
  • g / gu: cargar (to load): cargue; investigar (to investigate) - investiygue; etc. Note, however: investiygs, in the 2nd person sing., without a connecting vowel, hence the -g- can be retained.
  • gi / g: pagiar (to page) - pagë; refûgiar-se (to flee) - me refûgë; etc.
  • gu / gü: triguar-se (to make a truce) - me trie.
  • qu / qü: xaquar (to rinse) - xae.

It should be noted above that when the verbal stem ends in -gi (i.e. /dʒ/), a trema is needed in the 1st and 3rd person over the personal ending, since without it the <-e> would be silent. There is no need for the trema in the other persons, so that the full Pr. Subj. paradigm of pagiar is:

  • pagë, pages, pagë, pageim, pagêis, pagen.

Stems ending in a vowel

When the root ends in -e or -o, a trema is needed over the unstressed -e- of the Pres.Subj. endings in the singular and the 3rd pers. plural, while the -ei- of the 1st pers.plural is changed into -î-. Examples:

  • -ear: crear (to create) - creë, creës, creë, creîm, creêis, creën; etc.
  • -oar: roar (to implore) - roë, roës, roë, roîm, roêis, roën.

In verbs with infinitives in -iar and -uar only, the change -eim > -îm applies. Examples:

  • -iar: liar (to bind, tie) - lîe, lîes, lîe, liîm, liêis, lîen; etc.
  • -uar: actuar (to activate) - actúe, actúes, actúe, actuîm, actuêis, actúen; etc.


The Imperative of 1st conjugation verbs is always predictable:

  • The 2nd person singular is always identical to the 3rd person sing. of the Present Indicative: canta, va, da, etc.
  • The 1st person plural is always identical to the 1st person plural of the Present Subjunctive: canteim, vayam, diam, etc.
  • The 2nd person plural is always identical to the past participle: cantat, eulat, dat, etc.

The Present Participle, the Gerund and the Past Participle

There are no irregularities in these forms, all of which agree with the following patterns: cantar - cantant, cantando, cantat; dar - dant, dando, dat.