This page is devoted to the irregularities of
the second conjugation (-eir verbs).
Tundrian-English dictionary provides forms for individual verbs from which irregular forms can be derived.
The forms of the common auxiliary verbs haveir and esseir were already
covered on the Verbs page, and will not be considered
The infinitive of almost all verbs in this class end in -eir. Nevertheless,
there are some exceptions:
- When the stem ends in a vowel, the infinitive of verbs in this class is spelt
<-îr>, in accordance
with the spelling rule that transforms the combination <-ei-> to <-î-> before
and after a vowel. Examples: traîr (to pull), reîr
(to rule), fuîr (to flee).
- One common irregular verb has an infinitive ending in -aer (pron. /ɛr/): faer
- There are three defective, rarely used (mostly in legal texts), verbs
with infinitives ending in -eer (pron. /er/). They are: leer
/'ler/ (to read [a will or speech]), reer /'rer/
( to rule [a country]) and veer /'ver/ (to carry,
convey [in legal texts]).
Each pattern is illustrated by all six forms of
the sample verb. Other verbs given as examples show only the infinitive and the
1st person singular. Letters in red show the irregularity and/or the stem
phoneme in the stressed or otherwise affected syllable; letters in blue show the stem
phoneme in the unstressed / unaffected syllable.
Note that there are no verbs in the 2nd conjugation with proparoxytonic
stress in root-stressed forms (i.e. corresponding to the
animar - ánimo
type in the 1st conjugation).
Some verbs fit into several categories, and may therefore be mentioned in
more than one place. E.g. the verb rideir (to laugh) has the 1st person singular
form riydzo in the Present Indicative, which puts the verb into both the
vocalic alternation class i / iy and the consonant alternation class d
Vocalic alternations (I) (unstressed/stressed
vowels are different)
The basic patterns are the same as in first-conjugation verbs. Examples:
- a / ai: maneir (to stay, remain): manho,
mans, maine, maneim,
- Also, the derived verb remaneir
(to remain): remanho, remans,
- Note that the 1st and 2nd person singular forms retain the
-a- for these 2 verbs.
- e / ie: gemeir (to groan): giemo,
giems, gieme, gemeim,
- The only verb in this category.
- e / ei: vendeir (to sell): veindo,
veinds, veinde, vendeim,
- This alternation occurs in many verbs containing -e- in the
root syllable, e.g.: cedeir (to yield): ceido;
credeir (to believe): creido;
cresceir (to grow): creisco;
deveir (must, to have to): deivo;
prendeir (to take): preindo;
selgeir (to choose): seilgo;
- There are many verbs with root -e- that do not alternate,
i.e. have -e- in both the stressed and unstressed forms. Examples: offendeir
(to offend): offendo; quereir
(to look for): quero; tzeneir
(to hold): tzenho; xedeir
(to sit): xedzo. Note that when the
<-e-> of the stem is in an open syllable,
there is still an alternation in pronunciation, e.g. quereir
/kə'rir/ but quero
- i / iy: viveir (to live) : viyvo,
viyvs, viyve, viveim,
- This alternation may occur when the stem <-i-> is in an open syllable,
e.g. also: dêcideir (to decide): dêciydo;
diceir (to say): diyco;
escriveir (to write): escriyvo;
occideir (to kill): occiydo;
rideir (to laugh): riydzo;
- In many verbs with root -i-, there is no alternation, e.g.:
biveir (to drink): bivo;
corrigeir (to correct): corrigo;
divideir (to divide): divido;
videir (to see): vidzo;
- When <-i-> is in a closed syllable, it never alternates,
e.g.: assisteir (to assist): assisto;
findeir (to split): findo;
mitteir (to put): mitto;
- o / ou: cognosceir (to know): cognousco,
- Four other verbs are in this category (plus their
derivatives): cozeir (to sew): couzo;
explodeir (to explode): exploudo;
poneir (to put down): pouno;
rodeir (to gnaw): roudo;
plus derivatives such as recognosceir (to
recognize): recognousco; etc.
- Most verbs with <-o-> in the stem, however, do not
alternate, e.g.: coceir (to cook): coco;
fodeir (to dig): fodzo;
mordeir (to bite): mordzo;
noceir (to harm): noço;
poteir (can, to be able to): posso;
voleir (to want, wish): volho;
- It should be pointed out that the o/ou alternation is an
orthographic one: it is possible to have it while there is no phonemic
alternation (e.g. poneir /pu'nir/
- pouno /'punu/),
and not to have it while there is (e.g. fodeir
/fu'dir/ - fodzo /'fodzu/).
In most verbs with an <-o-> in a closed syllable, however, there is neither an
orthographic nor a phonemic alternation, e.g.: mordeir
/mɔr'dir/ - mordzo
Vocalic alternations (II) (first person singular is different)
There are seven verbs with a different kind of vowel alternation: the root vowel in
all persons is identical to that of the infinitive except for the 1st person
singular. The patterns are:
- a / ai: sapeir (to know): saipo,
saps, sape, sapeim,
- Also: capeir (to catch, fit):
caipo; rapeir-se (to
hurry): me raipo.
- a / â: faceir (to make): fâço,
faces, face, faceim,
- Also: jaceir (to lie down):
jâço; taceir (to be quiet, to
shut up): tâço
- o / oi: moveir (to move): moivo,
movs, move, moveim,
- The only verb in this category. Note the triple vocalic
alternation in pronunciation: /'moĭvu, 'mofs,
'movə, mu'vim, mu'veĭs,
The most common pattern involves a change in the root-final consonant of the
1st person singular. For most patterns, there are examples of verbs
showing the alternation, as well as of verbs not showing it.
- c / ç: torceir (to turn): torço,
torces, torce, torceim,
- Other common verbs showing this alternation (which is
orthographic only - the pronunciation is /tʃ/
(to teach): doço; faceir
(to make): fâço; jaceir
(to lie down): jâço; liceir
(to pass time): liço; luceir
(to shine): luço; noceir
(to harm): noço; placeir
(to please): plaço; taceir
(to be quiet): tâço.
- The opposite situation occurs in other verbs with
stem-final <c>: there is no alternation in spelling, but there is one in
pronunciation, as <c> is pronounced /-k-/ before the <o> of the 1st pers.
singular, and /-tʃ-/
before the <e> of the other persons. Examples: all verbs with stems ending
in <sc>, e.g.: cognosceir (to know): cognousco, cognousces, etc.;
cresceir (to grow): creisco;
nasceir (to be born): nasco;
etc. Also: coceir (to cook): coco;
diceir (to say): diyco;
duceir (to lead): duco;
vinceir (to defeat): vinco.
- d / dz: videir (to see): vidzo,
vids, vide, videim,
- Other verbs showing this alternation are: fodeir
(to dig): fodzo; mordeir
(to bite): mordzo; pendeir
(to hang): pendzo; possideir
(to own): possidzo; respondeir
(to answer): respondzo; rideir
(to laugh): riydzo; xedeir
(to sit): xedzo; etc.
- Most verbs with infinitives ending in -deir, however, do
not change the consonant. Examples: cadeir (to
fall): cado; claudeir
(to close): claudo; credeir
(to believe): creido; explodeir
(to explode): exploudo; occideir
(to kill): occiydo; prendeir
(to take): preindo; vendeir
(to sell): veindo; etc.
- g / gi: figeir (to fix): figio,
figes, figë, figeim,
- As with verbs with the c / ç alternation, this alternation
is only orthographic, the pronunciation being /dʒ/
throughout. The trema in the 3rd pers. sing. should be noted - without it, the
final -e would be silent (it would be there in order to show the palatal <g>). There are
four other verbs in this group: afligeir (to
afflict): afliygio; indûlgeir
(to indulge): indûlgio; mûlgeir
(to milk): mûlgio; negligeir
(to neglect): negligio.
- Again, just as with verbs with stem-final <c>, most verbs with
stem-final <g> have an alternation in pronunciation (/g/ vs. /dʒ/),
but have <g> in spelling throughout. Examples: cingeir
(to surround): cingo, cinges,
cingë, etc; corrigeir
(to correct): corrigo; exigeir
(to demand): exigo; tangeir
(to touch): tango; etc.
- g / y: legeir (to read): leyo,
leges, legë, legeim,
- One other verb in this class: frigeir
(to fry): friyo ['frøĭu], friyges,
friygë, frigeim, frigêis,
- gu / g: distingueir (to distinguish): distingo,
- This is a purely orthographic alternation; one other verb
follows the pattern: extingueir (to
extinguish): extingo, extingues,
- l / lh: voleir (to want): volho,
vols, vole, voleim,
- Most verbs ending in -leir follow this pattern. E.g.: caleir
(to heat): calho; soleir
(to be wont to): solho; valeir
(to be worth): valho; etc.
- Three common verbs do not have this alternation: falleir-si
(to need): mi fallo [hardly ever used in the 1st
person]; moleir (to grind): molo;
tolleir (to lift): tollo.
- n / nh: tzeneir (to hold): tzenho,
tzens, tzene, tzeneim,
- One other verbs like this: maneir
(to stay, remain): manho, mans,
maine, maneim, manêis,
mainen [the strange vowel alternation in this verb
has already been discussed]. In addition, compounds of these two verbs also
follow this pattern: remaneir (to remain): remanho;
sotzeneir (to support): sotzenho;
- Three other verbs in -neir do not follow the pattern: cerneir
(to sift): cerno; esterneir
(to strew): esterno; poneir
(to put down): pouno.
- q(u) / c: xequeir (to follow): xeco,
xeqs, xeque, xequeim,
- As is the case with many verbs ending in -ceir, -geir and
-gueir, this is an orthographic alternation only, the actual consonant being
/k/ throughout. Note the dropping of the <u> in the 2nd pers. singular.
Derivatives of this verb are conjugated analogously, e.g. persequeir
(to persecute): perseco; perxequeir
(to pursue): perxeco.
- t / ss: poteir (can, to be able to): posso,
pots, pote, poteim,
- This is the only verb of its kind. All other verbs in -teir
have an unchanging <t>, e.g.: averteir (to warn):
averto; batteir (to
beat): batto; existeir
(to exist): existo; etc.
- nothing / y / g: fuîr (to flee): fuyo, fuges,
fugë, fugeim, fugêis,
- The four verbs in this group are similar to those with the
g / y alternation, except that the <-g-> is missing in the infinitive. The
other three verbs are: luîr (to mourn): luyo, luges,
reîr (to rule): reyo, reges,
regë, etc.; suîr (to suck): suyo,
suges, sugë, etc.
Verbs with stems ending in a vowel
These verbs are fairly regular. However, Tundrian has some orthographic rules
that must be maintained, and these rules require certain changes in the present
tense of verbs in this class. The rules include (a) the digraph <-ei-> used for
the phoneme /i/ is changed to <-î-> before and after a vowel; (b) the stressed
vowel /y/ must bear the acute accent (i.e. it must be written <ú>) before
word-final -e, -en, -es; and (c) the consonant /w/, normally spelt <u>, must be
spelt <ü> between <g> and a front vowel (<e> or <i>). The patterns are:
- traîr (to trace, pull): trayo,
traes, trae, traîm, traêis, traen.
- No other verbs in this sub-class.
- argüeir (to argue): argúo,
argúes, argúe, argüeim,
- No other verbs in this sub-class.
- construîr (to construct): constrúo,
construîm, construêis, constrúen.
- Similarly, most other verbs in -uîr (see
above for fuîr, luîr and sûir): destruîr
(to destroy): destrúo; instruîr
(to instruct): instrúo; etc.
There are three defective verbs with infinitives ending in -eer: leer (to read [a will or speech]), reer
(to rule [a country]) and veer (to carry,
convey [in legal texts]). Their present indicative conjugation is exemplified
- leyo, leës, leë, leîm, leêis, leën.
- The other two verbs are in practice restricted to the 3rd
person sing. and plural: reë(n), veë(n).
A special problem is that of the ending of the
2nd person singular. The regular ending is -s: cadeir - cads.
Nevertheless, the connecting vowel -e- is added before this ending in cases
where the ending cluster would be difficult or impossible to pronounce. The
rules for the need for this connecting vowel are the
same as for the accusative plural
of class B nouns and adjectives. Examples:
- -zeir: cozeir
(to sew) - couzes.
- -xeir: têixeir
(to weave) - têixes.
- -ceir, -geir: coceir (to cook) - coces;
exigeir (to demand) - exiges;
- This rule also applies to verbs where the
-g- is absent in the infinitive, but is present in the present tense,
e.g.: fuîr (to flee): fuges.
- Note that the 3rd person of the present indicative of
verbs whose 2nd person ends in –ges ends in –gë. Examples: attingë,
exigë, fugë, lugë,
regë, sugë, etc.
- -rreir: cûrreir
(to run) - cûrres; etc.
- most consonant clusters + -eir: absorbeir (to
absorb) - absorbes; volveir (to
come back) - volves; extingueir
(to grate) - extingues; existeir
(to exist): existes; etc. [BUT: mordeir (to
bite) - mords; verteir (to
shed) - verts;
- There is also a connecting vowel in verbs with roots ending in a vowel:
traîr (to trace, pull): traes; construîr (to
construct): constrúes; etc.
Also affecting the 2nd person singular is the
issue of verb roots ending in a geminate consonant, essentially <-ll-> and <-tt->
(but not <-rr->, which requires a supporting vowel, see above). Before the -s
ending of the 2nd person sing., the geminate is reduced to a single written consonant, and the preceding
vowel obtains the circumflex accent (if it does not already have one). Examples of
- expelleir (to chase away): expêls;
tolleir (to lift): tôls;
- batteir (to beat): bâts;
mitteir (to put): mîts;
Most 2nd conj. verbs form their imperfect indicative regularly. The rule is
to remove the -eim ending of the 1st pers. plural
of the present indicative, and add the endings of the imperfect indicative.
- haveir (to have, 1st pers. plural: haveim):
havîa, havîas, havîa,
haviam, haviais, havîan.
- extingueir (to extinguish, 1st pers. plural: extingueim):
- argüeir (to argue, 1st pers. plural: argüeim):
In verbs with the stem ending in a vowel, the 1st pers. plural of the pres.
ind. ends in -îm. In the imperf. ind. this is replaced with the normal
endings of the tense, except that in the 1st and 2nd pers. plur. the -i- is
replaced with a -y- (forms like -aiam, -êiais etc. not being allowed acc. to
Tundrian spelling conventions). Examples:
- traîr (to pull, trace): traîa, traîas, traîa, trayam,
- leer (to read): leîa, leîas, leîa, leyam, leyan,
- construîr (to construct): construîa, construîas, construîa, construyam,
In fact, as the 1st and 2nd pers. sing. forms of traîr and leer
are identical to the corresponding forms of the present subjunctive, they are
not much used in practice.
- The imperf. ind. of the verb esseir (to be) is highly irregular:
yera, yeras, yera, êram, êrais, yeran.
- In verbs whose imperf. endings are preceded by the letter <g>, a
trema has to be added on the <i> of the ending in the 1st and 2nd pers. plural
(otherwise the <i> would be silent, serving only to show the palatal
pronunciation of the preceding <g>). Examples:
- frangeir (to break): frangîa, frangîas, frangîa, frangïam,
- fuîr (to flee): fugîa, fugîas, fugîa, fugïam,
Weak (i.e. regular) preterites
Typically, the endings of the pret. ind. are added on to the verb stem, e.g.:
- cadeir (to fall): cadúi, cadusti/cadús,
cadú, cadum, cadustes/caduis,
When the verb stem ends in -c or -g, the palatal pronunciation is retained in
the preterite, which requires the spelling of the stem-final consonant to be
changed to <-ç-> and <-gi->, respectively, e.g.:
- cognosceir (to know): cognosçúi,
- Some other examples: coceir
(to cook) - coçúi; cresceir
(to grow) - cresçúi; noceir
(to harm) - noçúi; etc.
- There is one exception, where the stem-final consonant
changes to its hard /k/ pronunciation, thus avoiding the change in spelling:
vinceir (to win) - vincúi,
- colgeir (to collect): colgiúi,
colgiú, colgium, colgiustes/colgiuis,
- Some other examples: dirigeir
(to direct) - dirigiúi; legeir
(to read) - legiúi; pûngeir
(to sting) - pûngiúi; etc.
When the verb stem ends in -u- (pronounced or not) or -ü-, this letter is
deleted in the preterite in order to avoid a duplication of the letter <u>.
- distingueir (to distinguish): distingúi,
- Also: extingueir (to
extinguish) - extingúi.
- constituîr (to constitute): constitúi,
- Also: destruîr (to destroy)
- destrúi; instruîr
(to instruct) - instrúi; etc.
- The pret.ind. of the verb luîr (to mourn) is not used.
- argüeir (to argue): argúi,
- No other verbs of this kind.
The verb esseir (to be) forms the pret. ind. on a different stem: fui,
fusti/fus, fu, fum, fustes/fuis, furon.
The defective verbs faer (to do), leer (to read), reer
(to rule, reign) and veer (to carry) have no preterites as such. For the
first three verbs, the preterites of the etymologically related verbs faceir,
legeir and reîr are used: feici, legiúi, rêixi, etc. If the
preterite of veer is needed, those of portar or transportar
are used (portái, transportái, etc.).
About 40 verbs of the 2nd conjugation, plus their compounds, have what are
known as strong preterites. Primarily, this means that in the 1st and 3rd person
singular the pret. ind. stresses the stem, rather than the ending. In addition,
the endings in the singular are different, there may be consonant changes at the
end of the stem, and there may also be vocalic alternations involving the stem.
Examples of patterns:
Sigmatic preterites (i.e. the preterite contains an
extension in -s- or -z-)
- Verbs changing stem-final -d- to -s-, e.g.: claudeir
(to close) - clausi, clausisti/clausís,
- Other verbs in -deir like this: alludeir
(to allude) - allusi; concludeir
(to conclude) - conclusi; excludeir (to exclude)
- exclusi; includeir (to include)
- inclusi; intrudeir (to intrude)
mordeir (to bite) - morsi.
- The following verbs in -deir have vocalic alternation in
the stem in addition: explodeir (to explode) -
(to laugh): riysi, risisti/risís,
riyse, risum, etc.
- Verbs changing stem-final -nd- to -z- (all of the verbs belonging here have vocalic alternation as well), e.g.: prendeir
(to take) - preizi, prezisti/prezís,
preize, prezum, prezustes/prezuis,
- The other verbs belonging here are: accendeir
(to light) - acceizi, accezisti/accezís,
acceize, etc.; respondeir
(to answer) - respouzi, respozisti/respozís,
respouze, etc.; tondeir
(to cut, shear) - touzi, tozisti/tozís,
touze, etc. [this verb can also have a weak
preterite: tondúi, etc.].
- Four other verbs (plus their compounds) have sigmatic preterites, e.g.:
mitteir (to write): miysi,
misisti/ misís, miyse,
misum, misustes / misuis, misuron.
- The other three are: poneir (to put down) - posi,
primeir (to press) - pressi, pressisti/pressís,
etc.; torceir (to turn) - torsi, torsisti/torsís,
etc. In addition, there are some compound verbs that belong here, e.g.:
sûmitteir (to submit) - sûmiysi, sûmisisti/sûmisís,
Shigmatic preterites (i.e. the preterite contains an
extension in -x-)
There are 15 verbs in this category, 5 with vocalic alternation in the stem,
10 without. The patterns are:
- With vocalic alternation, e.g.: diceir (to say) - diyxi,
- The other 4 are (only the 1st and 2nd pers. sing. will be
given): afligeir (to afflict) - afliyxi, aflixisti/aflixís;
figeir (to fix) - fiyxi, fixisti/fixís;
frigeir (to fry) - friyxi, frixisti/frixís;
viviyr (to live) - viyxi, vixisti/vixís.
- Also, compounds of the above, e.g.: surviveir (to
survive) - surviyxi, etc.
- Without vocalic alternation, e.g.: duceir (to lead) - duixi,
- The other 9 are (only the 1st pers. sing. will be given):
cingeir (to gird, surround) - cinxi; jûngeir
(to join) - jûnxi [also weak: jûngiúi];
pingeir (to paint) - pinxi; plangeir-se (to
complain) - me planxi; reîr (to rule) - rêixi;
suîr (to suck) - suixi; tingeir (to dye) - tinxi;
traîr (to pull, trace) - traixi; ûngeir (to
anoint) - ûnxi.
- Also, compounds of the above, e.g. conduceir (to
conduct) - conduixi, etc.
Other strong preterites
There are five other 2nd conjugation verbs with strong preterites, three of them
involving vocalic changes in the root. All of them retain the normal root-final
consonant of the infinitive. The two patterns are:
- With vocalic alternation: faceir (to make) - feici,
- Also: occideir (to kill) - occiydi,
etc; videir (to see) - viydi, vidisti/vidís,
viyde, vidum, etc.
- Also, compounds of the above, e.g.: provideir (to
provide) - proviydi, etc.
- Without vocalic alternation: sapeir (to know) - seupi,
- Also: xequeir (to follow) - xequi,
xecuron [note the qu/c alternation].
- Also, compounds of the above, e.g.: persequeir (to
persecute) - persequi; perxequeir (to pursue) -
These tenses are normally based on the stem of the preterite indicative. To
form them, the endings are added on to the 3rd pers. plural of the pret. ind.,
with the -ron ending taken off.
For example, the verb cadeir (to fall), 3rd pers. plur. of the pret. ind.
caduron, has the forms:
- Pluperfect Indicative: cadura, caduras,
- Imperfect Sunbjunctive: cadusse, cadusses,
All 2nd conjugation verbs follow these rules, e.g.:
- cognosceir (to know): cognosçura;
- colgeir (to collect): colgiura;
- distingueir (to distinguish): distingura;
- claudeir (to close): clausura;
- prendeir (to take): prezura;
- diceir (to say): dixura; dixusse.
- faceir (to make): feçura; feçusse.
- sapeir (to know): seupura;
The endings of these two tenses are added on to the infinitive, except that
the -ei- of the infinitive ending is either replaced by -e- (in most cases), or is completely lost (when it is preceded by
some single or doubled consonants). There are some exceptions, which are best learned by
In the examples below, only the 3rd person singular of the future is shown -
all other forms of the future and the conditional are formed analogously.
Examples where the -ei- of the infinitive is replaced by -e-, by type of
- l + consonant: colgeir (to collect) / colgerá;
solveir (to solve) / solverá; etc.
- m + consonant: rûmpeir (to break) / rûmperá;
- n + consonant: descendeir (to descend) / descenderá;
ûngeir (to anoint) / ûngerá; vinceir (to beat) /
- r + consonant: absorbeir (to absorb) / absorberá;
argüeir (to argue) / argüerá; cerneir (to sift) /
cernerá; mordeir (to bite) / morderá;
- rr: cûrreir (to run) / cûrrerá;
tzorreir (to bake) / tzorrerá; verreir (to sweep)
/ verrerá; etc.
- If the stem ends in -l-, the -e- is also kept: doleir (to
hurt) / dolerá; expelleir (to expel) / expellerá;
- Similarly, if the infinitive ends in -ceir, -geir, -meir, -queir,
-sceir or -xeir, the -e- is kept: cognosceir (to know) / cognoscerá; exigeir (to require) / exigerá; placeir (to please) /
têixeir (to weave) / têixerá; tzimeir (to fear) /
tzimerá; xequeir (to follow) / xequerá;
In most other cases with a simple (or doubled) consonant at the end of the
stem, the -e- is lost in the future and conditional. In the case of doubled consonants, it is simplified in the future and
conditional, as Tundrian does not allow doubled consonants before another
- Stem ends in -b: exhibeir (to exhibit) / exhibrá;
prohibeir (to prohibit) / prohibrá;
- Stem ends in -d: cadeir (to fall) / cadrá;
videir (to see) / vidrá; etc.
- Stem ends in -n: poneir (to put down) / ponrá;
tzeneir (to hold) / tzenrá; etc.
- Stem ends in -p: percipeir (to perceive) / perciprá;
rapeir-se (to hurry) / se raprá; etc.
- Two verbs change the -p- to -v- in the future and
conditional: capeir (to catch, fit) / cavrá;
sapeir (to know) / savrá.
- Stem ends in -r (except for verbs in -rreir): infereir (to
infer) / inferrá; quereir (to search) / querrá;
- Exceptionally, the -e- is retained in: pareir (to bear [a
child]) / parerá.
- Stem ends in -t: mitteir (to put) / mitrá;
poteir (to be able) / potrá; etc.
- Where the -t- is preceded by a diphthong, the -e- is
retained: annêiteir (to annex) / annêiterá;
connêiteir (to connect) / connêiterá; etc.
- Stem ends in -v: haveir (to have) / havrá;
viveir (to live) / vivrá; etc.
- Stem ends in -z: cozeir (to sew) / cozrá.
The verb esseir is irregular: será.
Verbs with infinitives in -îr change it to -ïr- in these tenses, while the
defective verbs in -aer, -eer are regular:
- construîr (to construct) / construïrá;
traîr (to pull, trace) / traïrá; etc.
- faer (to do) / faerá; reer (to
rule) / reerá; etc.
As a general rule, the endings of the Pres.Subj. are added on to the stem of
the verb as found before the 1st Pers. Sing. -o ending of the Pres.Ind. Examples
- cadeir (to fall) [cado]:
cada, cadam, cadais,
- maneir (to stay) [manho]: manha,
manhas, manha, manham,
- sapeir (to know) [saipo]: saipa,
saipas, saipa, saipam,
- faceir (to make) [fâço]: fâça,
fâças, fâça, fâçam,
- coceir (to cook) [coco]: coca,
cocas, coca, cocam,
- moveir (to move) [moivo]: moiva,
moivas, moiva, moivam,
- torceir (to turn) [torço]: torça,
torças, torça, torçam,
- videir (to see) [vidzo]: vidza,
vidzas, vidza, vidzam,
- figeir (to fix) [figio]: figia,
figias, figia, figiam,
- cingeir (to surround) [cingo]:
cinga, cingas, cinga,
cingam, cingais, cingan.
- distingueir (to distinguish) [distingo]:
- voleir (to want) [volho]: volha,
volhas, volha, volham,
- moleir (to grind) [molo]: mola,
molas, mola, molam,
- tzeneir (to hold) [tzenho]:
tzenha, tzenhas, tzenha,
- cerneir (to sift) [cerno]: cerna,
cernas, cerna, cernam,
- xequeir (to follow) [xeco]: xeca,
xecas, xeca, xecam,
- poteir (to be able to) [posso]:
possa, possas, possa,
possam, possais, possan.
- traîr (to trace, pull) [trayo]:
traya, trayas, traya,
trayam, trayais, trayan.
Verbs with vocalic alternation
Verbs with type I vocalic alternation (except for
those with a/ai alternation) have the same kind of alternation in the Pres.Subj.
- i.e. one stem vowel in the sing. and in the 3rd pers.plural, and another in
the 1st and 2nd pers. plural. This may be in addition to a changed consonant at
the end of the stem, which is preserved throughout the Present Subjunctive.
- e/ie: gemeir (to groan) [giemo
/ gemeim]: giema, giemas,
giema, gemam, gemais,
- e/ei: vendeir (to sell) [veindo
/ vendeim]: veinda,
veindas, veinda, vendam,
- i/iy: viveir (to live) [viyvo
/ viveim]: viyva, viyvas,
viyva, vivam, vivais,
viyvan. With changed consonant: rideir (to laugh)
[riydzo / rideim]: riydza,
riydzas, riydza, ridzam,
- o/ou: cognosceir (to know) [cognousco
/ cognosceim]: cognousca,
The same pattern applies to verbs with an ú/u alternation in the Pres.Ind.
- argüeir (to argue) [argúo /
argüeim]: argúa, argúas,
argúa, arguam, arguais,
argúan. [Note the absence of the trema].
- construîr (to construct) [constrúo
/ cinstruîm]: constrúa,
Verbs with -eyo, -iyo or -uyo in the 1st pers. sing. of the Pres.Ind. lose
the -y- in the 1st and 2nd pers. plur. of the Pres.Subj. Examples:
- legeir / leer (to read) [leyo]:
leya, leyas, leya,
leam, leais, leyan.
- frigeir (to fry) [friyo]:
- fuîr (to flee) [fuyo]:
fuya, fuyas, fuya,
Two verbs have quite irregular stems in this tense:
- esseir (to be): sîa, sîas,
sîa, siam, siais,
- haveir (to have): haya, hayas,
haya, hayam, hayais,
The verb faer (to do) is defective, and its Pres.Subj. forms are
provided by the corresponding forms of faceir (to make):
The Imperative of 2nd conjugation verbs is
- The 2nd person singular is identical to the 3rd person sing. of the
Present Indicative: veinde, legë,
- One exception: the form for esseir (to be) is
- The 1st person plural is identical to the 1st person plural of the Present
Subjunctive: vendam, leam,
- The 2nd person plural replaces the -êis ending of the 2nd person plural of
the Present Indicative with -eit (-ît after a vowel): vendeit,
legeit, xequeit, traît,
Present Participle and the Gerund
The Present Participle and the Gerund of practically all 2nd conjugation verbs are regular:
the -eir or -îr of the infinitive is replaced by -ent and -endo, respectively: vendent,
legent, xequent, essent,
legendo, xequendo, essendo,
The Present Participle and the Gerund of the defective verbs faer, leer, reer and
veer are supplied by the corresponding forms of faceir, legeir, reîr
and portar: facent, legent,
reent and portant; facendo, legendo,
reendo and portando.
Weak Past Participles
The regular Past Participle of 2nd conjugation verbs is formed by adding -ut
to the stem preceding the -eir ending of the infinitive: vendeir > vendut,
haveir > havut.
When the stem ends in a palatal consonant (-c-, -g-), the palatal
pronunciation is normally preserved before the Past Participle ending, therefore
the spelling of the stem-final consonant must be changed to -ç-, -gi-:
- cognosceir (to know): cognosçut; cresceir (to
grow): cresçut; jaceir (to lie down): jaçut;
taceir (to be silent): taçut; etc.
- One exception: vinceir (to win): vincut.
- colgeir (to collect): colgiut; dirigeir (to
direct): dirigiut; figeir (to fix): figiut;
sûrgeir (to surge): sûrgiut; etc.
In verbs where the infinitive is preceded by -u- or -ü- the -u- of
the Past Participle merges with the stem-final vowel. Patterns:
- constituîr (to constitute): constitut;
distribuîr (to distribute): distribut; polluîr
(to pollute): pollut; etc.
- argüeir (to argue): argut.
- distingueir (to distinguish): distingut.
- Note the additional spelling change in xequeir
(to follow): xecut.
Strong Past Participles
All 2nd conj. verbs not following the above patterns are considered
strong. There are several types (the lists, except for derivatives, are
Irregular -t endings preceded by a vowel
There are several types:
- -ut: escriveir (to write): escrut;
esseir (to be): fut; viveir (to live): viscut.
- -at: nasceir (to be born) : nat.
- -aut: capeir (to catch): caut.
- -ait: faceir (to make) / faer (to do): fait;
frangeir (to break): frait; tangeir (to touch,
play): tait; traîr (to pull, trace): trait.
- -eyt / -êit: legeir / leer (to read): leyt;
reîr / reer (to rule): rêit.
- -iyt: afligeir (to afflict): afliyt;
diceir (to say): diyt; frigeir (to fry): friyt;
pingeir (to paint): piyt.
- -oit: coceir (to cook): coit; doceir
(to teach): doit.
- -uit: construîr (to construct): construit;
destruîr (to destruct): destruit; duceir (to
lead): duit; fuîr (to flee): fuit;
instruîr (to instruct): instruit; luîr (to
mourn): luit; suîr (to suck): suit.
- Also, compounds of the above: conduceir (to
conduct): conduit; reduceir (to reduce): reduit;
Irregular -t endings preceded by a consonant
- -nt: cingeir (to gird, surround): cint;
eximeir (to exempt): exent; extingueir (to
extinguish): extint; fingeir (to pretend): fint;
jûngeir (to join): jûnt; plangeir-se (to
complain): plant; resumeir (to resume): resunt;
tingeir (to dye): tint; ûngeir (to anoint): ûnt.
- Also other verbs in -sumeir, e.g. assumeir (to
assume): assunt; prêsumeir (to presume): prêsunt;
- -rt: torceir (to turn): tort.
- -st: poneir (to put down): post;
respondeir: respost; videir: vist.
Sigmatic past participles
15 verbs (plus their derivatives) have sigmatic past participles.
Of the primary verbs, 10 end in single -s, 2 in -ss and 3 in -z. They are:
- -s: alludeir (to allude): allús;
claudeir (to close): claus; concludeir (to
conclude): conclús; excludeir (to exclude): exclús;
explodeir (to explode): explous; includeir (to
include): inclús; intrudeir (to intrude): intrús;
mordeir (to bite): môrs; occideir (to kill):
occiys; rideir (to laugh): riys.
- Also derivatives of the above: sorideir (to
- Note the disappearance of the
accent in declined forms of these past participles: allusa,
- -ss: mitteir (to put): miss;
primeir (to press): press.
- Also derivatives: sûmitteir (to submit): sûmiss;
oprimeir (to oppress): opress; etc.
- -z: accendeir (to light): acceiz;
prendeir (to take): preiz; tondeir (to cut,
shear): touz [also regular: tondut].
- Also derivatives: aprendeir (to learn): apreiz;
comprendeir (to understand): compreiz; etc.