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TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

FIRST CONJUGATION IRREGULARITIES




CONTENTS


This page is devoted to the irregularities of the first conjugation (-ar verbs).

The Tundrian-English dictionary provides forms for individual verbs from which irregular forms can be derived.


Present Indicative

Each pattern is illustrated by all six forms of the sample verb. Other verbs given as examples show only the infinitive and the 1st person singular. Letters in red show the irregularity and/or the stem vowel in the stressed syllable; letters in blue show the stem vowel in the unstressed syllable.

Highly irregular verbs (eular 'to go' was already dealt with on the general Verbs page):

Verbs with vowel alternation in the stem (unstressed/stressed vowels are different).

Verbs with proparoxytonic stem-stressed forms.

This class of verbs, normally of learned or semi-learned origin, stresses the third last (antepenultimate) syllable in those forms where regular 1st conjugation verbs stress the second-last (penultimate). Example:
 

The following is a list of possible patterns, with examples for each (only the infinitive and the 1st person singular forms are given):

Some verbs with stem <-û-> also belong here, although the irregular stress cannot be shown due to the circumflex that is already on the <u>. Examples:
 

Verbs with stems ending in -i- (i.e. infinitive ending in -iar).

There are two subclasses, one with the -i- stressable (when stressed, this is spelled <î>), the other with the -i- not stressable (no irregular stress needs to be shown in spelling). Patterns and examples:

Verbs with stems ending in -u- (i.e. infinitive ending in -uar).

There are two subclasses, one with the -u- stressable (when stressed, this is spelled <ú>), the other with the -u- not stressable (no irregular stress needs to be shown). The second subclass is very small, and consists only of verbs with infinitives ending in -guar and -quar. It should be noted that the 1st person singular for this latter class ends in -go and -co, respectively. Patterns and examples:


Imperfect Indicative

There are no irregularities in this tense: all 1st conjugation verbs add the endings on to the stem:


Preterite Indicative

Irregular 1st conjugation verbs in this tense are the following:

Other verbs are regular:


Pluperfect Indicative and Imperfect Subjunctive

All 1st conjugation verbs are predictable in the sense that the endings of these tenses are added on to the stem of the Preterite Indicative, formed from the 3rd person plural from which the -ron ending has been deleted. Examples:


Future Indicative and Conditional

The endings of these tenses are normally added on to the infinitive, and there are no irregularities in the 1st conjugation with the exception of eular (to go), which was already dealt with on the general Verbs page. Examples:


Present Subjunctive

Highly irregular verbs

On the whole, the present subjunctive offers the same patterns as the present indicative. There are the usual highly irregular verbs (eular 'to go' was already dealt with on the general Verbs page):

Vocalic alternations

For other verbs, the same alternations occur as in the present indicative, and in the same persons. Examples:

Verbs with the a / ai alternation retain the -a- in the 2nd person singular. Thus the Pres. Subj. paradigm of amar (to love is):

Supporting vowel

A special problem is that of the ending of the 2nd person singular. The regular ending is -s: cantar - cants. Nevertheless, a connecting vowel -e- is added before this ending in cases where the final cluster would be difficult or impossible to pronounce. The rules for the need for this connecting vowel are the same as for the accusative plural of class B nouns and adjectives. Examples:

Stems ending in a geminate consonant

Also affecting the 2nd person singular is the issue of stems ending in a geminate consonant <-cc->, <-nn>, etc. Before the -s ending, the geminate is reduced to a single written consonant, and the preceding vowel obtains a circumflex accent (if it does not already have one). Examples of patterns:

This rule does not apply to verbs with stems ending in -cçar, -rrar or -ssar, as they require a supporting vowel and thus can keep the geminate in the 2nd pers. singular, e.g.:

Stems with consonantal alternation

Finally, there are the verb stems ending in velar, palatal and labiovelar consonants. For such verbs, spelling changes according to whether the following vowel is a back (-a- or -o-) or a front (-e-) vowel. The actual pronunciation of the stem-final consonant never varies in first-conjugation verbs, which means that the spelling of these consonants must change. Examples of patterns (for all, the Infinitive and the Present Subjunctive 1st person form are given):

It should be noted above that when the verbal stem ends in -gi (i.e. /dʒ/), a trema is needed in the 1st and 3rd person over the personal ending, since without it the <-e> would be silent. There is no need for the trema in the other persons, so that the full Pr. Subj. paradigm of pagiar is:

Stems ending in a vowel

When the root ends in -e or -o, a trema is needed over the unstressed -e- of the Pres.Subj. endings in the singular and the 3rd pers. plural, while the -ei- of the 1st pers.plural is changed into -î-. Examples:

In verbs with infinitives in -iar and -uar only, the change -eim > -îm applies. Examples:


Imperative

The Imperative of 1st conjugation verbs is always predictable:


The Present Participle, the Gerund and the Past Participle

There are no irregularities in these forms, all of which agree with the following patterns: cantar - cantant, cantando, cantat; dar - dant, dando, dat.




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