THE GS WEB SITE

TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

VERBS




CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

Tundrian verbs present a complexity far beyond that seen in the nouns and adjectives of the language. For the simple finite forms, there are distinctions made for two numbers (singular and plural), three persons (1st, 2nd and 3rd), five tenses (present, imperfect, preterite, pluperfect and future) and four moods (indicative, subjunctive, conditional and imperative). In addition there are the non-finite forms of the infinitive and the past and present participle. Finally, there are compound tenses combining auxiliary verbs and  the past participle.

The basic form of a verb is called its root - this is what the endings are added to. Normally, different finite forms of verbs are distinguished by the use of different endings. However, in many irregular verbs the root may also change in specific forms. In two common irregular verbs (esseir 'to be' and eular 'to go') there are examples of suppletion: different roots are used for different forms.


CONJUGATION PATTERNS

REGULAR CONJUGATION CLASSES

There are three conjugations, defined by whether the infinitive ends in -ar (Class I), -eir (Class II) or -iyr (Class III). Class III is further subdivided into two subclasses (IIIa and IIIb), depending on whether the verbs have an extension in -isc- in some forms or not.

All simple forms of sample verbs illustrating the four conjugation classes are given below. For all finite forms within a paradigm, the order is as follows: 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular, 1st, 2nd and 3rd person plural. All endings are in red.

Conjugation I II IIIa IIIb
Infinitive cantar cadeir mentiyr finiyr
Meaning to sing to fall to lie to finish
Present Indicative canto
cantas
canta
cantam
cantais
cantan
cado
cads
cade
cadeim
cadêis
caden
mento
ments
mente
mentiym
mentiys
menten
finisco
finisces
finisce
finiym
finiys
finiscen
Imperfect Indicative cantava
cantavas
cantava
cantavam
cantavais
cantavan
cadîa
cadîas
cadîa
cadiam
cadiais
cadîan
mentîa
mentîas
mentîa
mentiam
mentiais
mentîan
finiscîa
finiscîas
finiscîa
finisciam
finisciais
finiscîan
Preterite Indicative cantái
cantasti/-ás
cantó
cantaum
cantastes/-ois
cantaron
cadúi
cadusti/-ús
cadú
cadum
cadustes/-uis
caduron
mentiy
mentisti/-ís
mentí
mentim
mentistes/-iys
mentiyron
finiy
finisti/-ís
finí
finim
finistes/-iys
finiyron
Pluperfect Indicative cantara
cantaras
cantara
cantaram
cantarais
cantaran
cadura
caduras
cadura
caduram
cadurais
caduran
mentiyra
mentiyras
mentiyra
mentiram
mentirais
mentiyran
finiyra
finiyras
finiyra
finiram
finirais
finiyran
Future Indicative cantaroy
cantarás
cantará
cantareim
cantarêis
cantarán
cadroy
cadrás
cad
cadreim
cadrêis
cadrán
mentiroy
mentirás
mentirá
mentireim
mentirêis
mentirán
finiroy
finirás
finirá
finireim
finirêis
finirán
Present Subjunctive cante
cants
cante
canteim
cantêis
canten
cada
cadas
cada
cadam
cadais
cadan
menta
mentas
menta
mentam
mentais
mentan
finisca
finiscas
finisca
finiscam
finiscais
finiscan
Imperfect Subjunctive cantasse
cantasses
cantasse
cantasseim
cantassêis
cantassen
cadusse
cadusses
cadusse
cadusseim
cadussêis
cadussen
mentisse
mentisses
mentisse
mentisseim
mentissêis
mentissen
finisse
finisses
finisse
finisseim
finissêis
finissen
Conditional cantarîa
cantarîas
cantarîa
cantariam
cantariais
cantarîan
cadrîa
cadrîas
cadrîa
cadriam
cadriais
cadrîan
mentirîa
mentirîas
mentirîa
mentiriam
mentiriais
mentirîan
finirîa
finirîas
finirîa
finiriam
finiriais
finirîan
Imperative -
canta
-
canteim
cantat
-
-
cade
-
cadam
cadeit
-
-
menti
-
mentam
mentiyt
-
-
finisce
-
finiscam
finiyt
-
Present Participle cantant cadent mentent finiscent
Gerund cantando cadendo mentendo finiscendo
Past Participle cantat, -a cadut, -a mentiyt, -a finiyt, -a

Notes:

MAIN AUXILIARY VERBS

Three auxiliary verbs are so important, and show so many irregularities, that their full conjugation is given below. Note that esseir and eular exhibit suppletion (they involve several different roots).

Infinitive esseir haveir eular
Meaning to be to have to go
Present Indicative soy
seis
és
m
sêis
son
hoy
has
ha
haveim
havêis
han
voy
vas
va
eulam
eulais
van
Imperfect Indicative yera
yeras
yera
êram
êrais
yeran
havîa
havîas
havîa
haviam
haviais
havîan
eulava
eulavas
eulava
eulavam
eulavais
eulavan
Preterite Indicative fui
fusti/fus
fu
fum
fustes/fuis
furon
havúi
havusti/havús
havú
havum
havustes/havuis
havuron
eulái
eulasti/-ás
euló
eulaum
eulastes/-ois
eularon
vadúi
vadusti/-ús
vadú
vadum
vadustes/-uis
vaduron
Pluperfect Indicative fura
furas
fura
furam
furais
furan
havura
havuras
havura
havuram
havurais
havuran
eulara
eularas
eulara
eularam
eularais
eularan
vadura
vaduras
vadura
vaduram
vadurais
vaduran
Future Indicative seroy
serás
será
sereim
serêis
serán
havroy
havrás
hav
havreim
havrêis
havrán
iroy
irás
i
ireim
irêis
irán
Present Subjunctive sîa
sîas
sîa
siam
siais
sîan
haya
hayas
haya
hayam
hayais
hayan
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayam
vayais
vayan
Imperfect Subjunctive fusse
fusses
fusse
fusseim
fussêis
fussen
havusse
havusses
havusse
havusseim
havussêis
havussen
eulasse
eulasses
eulasse
eulasseim
eulassêis
eulassen
vadusse
vadusses
vadusse
vadusseim
vadussêis
vadussen
Conditional serîa
serîas
serîa
seriam
seriais
serîan
havrîa
havrîas
havrîa
havriam
havriais
havrîan
irîa
irîas
irîa
iriam
iriais
irîan
Imperative -
sei
-
siam
seit
-
-
ha
-
hayam
haveit
-
-
va
-
vayam
eulat
-
Present Participle essent havent eulant
Gerund essendo havendo eulando
Past Participle fut, -a havut, -a eulat, -a

Where two parallel sets are given for eular, the two are used with roughly equal frequency, and both are considered correct in the standard language.

COMPOUND TENSES

For every form of the Tundrian verb (with the exception of the Imperative and the Past Participle), there is a corresponding compound form known as the perfect. The perfect forms are always made by the appropriate form of one of the auxiliary verbs esseir or haveir, followed by the past participle of the verb in question: hoy cantat (I have sung), êram vêniyti (we had come), havent passat (having passed).

The basic rules as to whether esseir or haveir should be used are as follows:




Copyright Gabor Sandi 1998-2019

Disclaimer: Everything on this site was written and/or prepared at the author's discretion. The author has tried to be accurate where facts are presented, but this does not mean that these facts are necessarily accurate. People needing more reliable information should refer to appropriate sources presented, on the Internet or elsewhere, by authoritative professional or academic bodies.

To get in touch with the webmaster, send an e-mail to g_sandi at hotmail.com.

Flags on this site are from the FOTW Flags Of The World website.

Valid HTML 4.01!