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TUNDRIAN LANGUAGE / LINGUA TUNDRIANA

TUNDRIAN PRONUNCIATION RULES




The rules on this page show the relationship between spelling and pronunciation in Tundrian. For pronunciation, we shall use the phonetic symbols explained on the Phonetics and phonology page.

Pronunciation rules are given in alphabetic order, by simple letter and digraph.

At the bottom of the page, there are examples of Tundrian homophones with contrasting spellings.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

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a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


HOMOPHONES

As in other languages with a historical-etymological spelling system, there are homophones in Tundrian distinguishable only by their spelling. Here are the most common ones (with pronunciation shown):

/'a/
a (to, at)
A (the letter A)
ha (he has)

/a'bɔrts/
abords (2nd pers. sing pres.subj. of abordar [to board])
aborts (2nd pers. sing pres.subj. of abortar [to abort])

/'ɛr/
aer (air)
R (the letter R)

/'as/
as (ace)
has (you have)

/a'vit/
aveit (fir tree)
haveit (imper.plural of haveir [to have])

/avr'ia, -s, -n; avri'am; avr'iaĭs/
avrîa, -s, -n; avriam, -iais (forms of the imperfect of the verb 'avriyr' [to open])
havrîa, -s, -n; havriam, -iais (forms of the conditional of the verb 'haveir' [to have])

/'tʃi/
C (the letter C)
ci (here)

/'kaĭl/
cail (street; corn [on the foot])
cayl (puppy)

/'kɔl/
caul (cabbage)
côl (mountain pass)

/kɔ'løĭna/
cauliyna (blade [of grass])
colliyna (hill)

/'kɔma/
cauma (heat-wave)
côma (coma)
comma (comma)

/'tʃits/
ceits (sea monsters, whales [acc.pl.])
cits (2nd pers. sing. pres.subj. of citar [to quote])

/'kor/
chór (choir)
cór (heart)

/'kotʃə/
coce (he cooks)
coice (shells, pods)   

/'kurt/
court (court [of law])
cûrt (short)

/'kuvru/
couvro (I cover)
cûvro (copper)

/'kyna/
Cugna (Cugna [a city in southern Tundria])
cuna (cradle)

/'kuĭts/
cûits (elbows [acc.pl.])
cûyts (2nd pers. sing. pres.subj. of cûytar [to nurse])

/'dan/
damn (damage)
dan (they give)

/də'leĭt/
delêit (delight)
deleyt (choice)

/du'tʃim/
doceim (we teach)
douceim (twelfth)

/du'tʃɛnti/
docenti (lecturers)
doucenti (two hundred)

/'dus - 'duz/
dos (you [polite form, acc.pl.])
dous (two)

/ɛ'ram / ɛ'raĭs/
êram / êrais (we/you were)
erram / errais (we/you make a mistake)

/ɛs'tila/
esteila (star)
estilla (it drops)

/ɛzi'tar/
exitar (exit [v.])
hêsitar (hesitate)

/'fa/
fa (he/she does)
fá (fa [musical note])

/'fɛr/
faer (to do)
ferr (iron)

/'fid/
feid (ugly)
fid (faith)

/'frøĭts/
friyds (cold [acc.pl., masc.])
friyts (fried [acc.pl., masc.])

/'fyĭta/
fuita (fled [pp., fem.sing.])
fuyta (leak)

/'gula/
Ghoyla (county and town in western Tundria)
gûla (throat)

/'ɔsta/
hosta (hostess)
osta (he uncovers)

/y'ran/
huyrán (from the county of Huyra)
Urán (Uranus)

/la/
la (the [fem.sing.])
lá (la [musical note])

/lɑs/
las (the [acc.pl.fem], before a voiceless cons.)
lass (tired, weary)

/'leĭt/
lêit (bed)
leyt (read [pp.])

/leĭ'vat/
lêivat (betrayal)
leyvat (pp. of leyvar [to lighten])

/'liɲa/
ligna (firewood)
linha (line)

/mi/
mei (me [after prep.])
mi (to me)
mí (mi [musical note])
mî (my [masc.sing.])

/'mis/
meiz (month)
mîs (my [acc.masc.pl.])
miss (put [pp.])

/'mits/
mîts (you put)
myths (myths [acc.pl.])

/mɔs'tria/
mostría (sample [n.])
mostrîa (he samples)

/'pina/
peina (fine [n.], punishment)
pinna (fin)

/'peĭra/
pêira (stone)
peyra (ewe)

/'pis - 'piz/
peiz (weight)
pis (pea)

/'pupa/
pûpa (doll)
pûppa (stern [of ship])

/pu'tim/
poteim (we can) etc.
pûteim (that we trim) etc.

/'rɔka/
rauca (hoarse [fem.sing.])
rocca (rock)

/'reĭna/
rêina (queen [ruling])
reyna (queen [consort])

/'saĭna/
saina (healthy [fem.sing.])
sayna (seine net)

/'sɔr/
saur (brown [horse colour])
sôr (father-in-law)

/'ʃina/
sceina (scene, stage)
Xina (China)

/ʃi/
sci (ski)
xi (if)

/'ʃia/
scîa (he skis)
xîa (wake [of a ship])

/si/
sei (him/her/itself [after prep.]; be [imp.sing.])
si (to him/her/itself; so)
sí (yes; si [musical note])

/'seĭs/
sêirs (serious [masc.plur.acc.])
sêis (you [pl] are)
seyls (centuries [acc.pl.])

/sula'mɛnt/
solament (only)
soulament (alone, by oneself)

/'sul/
soul (sun; only [adj.])
sûl (shrew)

/su'prima/
sûpreima (supreme [fem.sing.])
sûprima (subj.pres. 1st/3rd.pers.sing. of the verb sûprimeir [to suppress])

/ti/
T (the letter T)
tei (you [sing., after prep.])
ti (to you [sing.])
tî (uncle)

/'tɛst/
test (test)
text (text)

/'tur/
tour (tour, trip)
tûrr (tower)

/'tus/
touz (cut, shorn [pp.])
tûs (your [acc.masc.pl.])
tûss (cough [n.])

/vi/
V (the letter V)
vi (there)

/'vaĭna/
vaina (vain [fem.sing.])
vayna (sheath)

/'van/
van (they go)
ván (vain)

/'vas - 'vaz/
vas (you go)
vaz (glass [for drinking])

/'vila/
veila (sail [n.])
villa (town)

/'vinta/
veinta (sale)
vinta (bound [pp; fem.sing.])

/'vɛri/
vêri (various [nom.masc.pl.])
verri (boars)




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